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To assess whether the cAMP-dependent protein kinase-A and/or the diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) pathways play important roles in the activation of CRF neurons in vivo under physiological conditions, we tested the effect of microinjection of 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) or 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) into both paraventricular(More)
The anatomical relationship between corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-containing cells and arginine vasopressin (AVP)-containing cells in the human hypothalamus was investigated by immunocytochemistry. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), CRF-like immunoreactivity (CRF-LI) was present exclusively in parvocellular cells, while(More)
To examine the physiological effects of norepinephrine (NE) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) on CRF gene expression and CRF release, NE was microinjected bilaterally into the PVH of conscious rats, and kinetic studies were performed on the levels of POMC messenger RNA (mRNA) in the anterior pituitary (AP), CRF mRNA in the(More)
Tuberoinfundibular corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurones are the principal regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. Vasopressin is primarily a neurohypophysial hormone, produced in magnocellular neurones of the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, but parvocellular CRH neurones also coexpress vasopressin, which(More)
All stress-related inputs are conveyed to the hypothalamus via several brain areas and integrated in the parvocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) where corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is synthesized. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is present in both magnocellular and parvocellular divisions of the PVN, and the latter population of AVP(More)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) colocalize in the parvocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). We examined the effect of forced swim-stress on the CRH and AVP primary transcript (hnRNA) levels in the rat PVN by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. CRH hnRNA increased markedly following(More)
Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP)-producing neurones are known to be localised mainly in the medulla oblongata and to act as a stress mediator in the central nervous system. In addition, central administration of PrRP elevates the arterial pressure and heart rate. However, the neuronal pathway of the cardiovascular effects of PrRP has not been revealed. In(More)
We have clearly demonstrated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) immunoreactive cell bodies and nerve fibers in the human hypothalamus by immunocytochemistry using free-floating sections instead of paraffin-embedded sections. Human hypothalami were obtained at autopsy, fixed and cryostat-sectioned at 40 microns. Free-floating sections were immunostained(More)
Evidence from pharmacological studies has implicated substance P (SP), a natural ligand of tachykinin NK(1) receptors which can also interact with NK(2) receptors, in the generation of pressor and tachycardic responses to stress. Using selective blockade of brain NK(1) and NK(2) receptors, we tested in conscious rats the hypothesis that SP initiates, within(More)