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Most flower visitors innately prefer a particular color and scent, and use them as cues for flower recognition and selection. However, in most cases, since color and scent serve as a combined signal, not only does the preference for an individual cue, but also the preference hierarchy among different cues, influence their flower visitation. In the present(More)
Exuded tree sap and rotting fruits are important feeding sources for adults of many butterfly species. However, the chemical composition of such rotting foods and the effects of these constituents on butterfly feeding behaviour have rarely been investigated. Chemical analyses revealed that these food sources contain several major components, including(More)
Two compounds, 9,10-epoxytetrahydroedulan (ET) and viridiflorine beta-lactone (VL), were identified as major components from the hairpencils of field-caught males of a danaid butterfly, Euploea mulciber. By contrast, laboratory-reared males entirely lacked VL, but possessed a significant quantity of ET. Various feeding experiments with larvae and indoor(More)
The sulfur butterfly, Colias erate, utilizes various legumes as host plants. We examined the chemical constituents of its primary host plant, Trifolium repens (white clover), to identify phytochemicals inducing oviposition by C. erate females. Since one of the four aqueous subfractions prepared from a methanolic extract of the plant has previously been(More)
We compared the chemical compositions of the osmeterial secretions of fourth and fifth (last) instars of eight swallowtail species of the tribe Papilionini. Four species (Papilio demoleus, P. polytes, P. paris, and P. macilentus) are Asian Rutaceae-feeding swallowtails. The other four (Chilasa epicydes, C. agestor, P. troilus, and P. glaucus) represent more(More)
In nature, Papilio polytes utilizes a limited range of rutaceous plants as hosts. We isolated and identified oviposition stimulants for the butterfly from the foliage of its primary host plant Toddalia asiatica. Females readily deposited eggs in response to a methanolic extract of the plant. Partition of the extract with organic solvents revealed that(More)
Host-plant chemicals responsible for egg-laying by the chestnut tiger butterfly, Parantica sita, were identified from one of its hosts, Marsdenia tomentosa. Ovipositing females responded positively to a methanolic extract of the plant. Solvent partitioning of the extract and oviposition bioassays indicated that the active principle resided in the aqueous(More)
Papilio maackii females prefer a rutaceous plant, Phellodendron amurense, for oviposition, whereas another semi-sympatric Rutaceae feeder, Papilio protenor, never exploits this plant as a host in nature. However, the larvae of both species perform well on this plant in the laboratory. Phellamurin, a flavonoid present in the organic fraction from P. amurense(More)
Adult Vanessa indica and Argyreus hyperbius frequently forage on flower nectar, but the former also utilizes tree sap and rotting fruits. Compared to flower nectar, these rotting foods are characterized by low sugar concentrations and the presence of fermentation products (ethanol and acetic acid). We suspected that gustatory responses by the receptors on(More)
Adult nymphalid butterflies possess sensilla trichodea (ST) that perceive taste in their walking legs. We examined whether the gustatory responses to mid-leg tarsal stimulation were different between Vanessa indica (rotting-food feeder) and Argyreus hyperbius (flower-nectar feeder). Sucrose, fructose, and glucose elicited behavioral responses (proboscis(More)