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Detailed examinations were performed in ten temporal muscles from five cadavers to identify the muscle bundle arrangements of the temporalis and their innervation. Three additional muscle bundles were clearly observed in the main part of the fan-shaped temporalis: the anteromedial, anterolateral, and mid-lateral muscle bundles. Based on the origins,(More)
Five pelvic halves from three male iguanas (Iguanidae Iguana iguana) and two pelvic halves from one male varanus (Varanidae Varanus (dumerillii)), were dissected in order to obtain detailed data on the relationship of the lumbosacral plexus and the muscles of the pelvic outlet. According to the positions of the passage of the metazonal nerves, the nerves(More)
The axial musculature of the brown caiman was investigated in detail with particular attention to the nerve supply, using a binocular stereomicroscope. Due to the prominent development of the longissimus (Lo) and the iliocostalis (IC) muscles of the caiman, the pattern of distribution of the spinal nerves in the body wall was unique; there also was less(More)
During examination of the positional relationships between the lateral pterygoid and the temporalis muscles and the innervating nerves, an aberrant muscle was observed in three of 66 head halves. The aberrant muscle originated from the medial surface of the anteromedial muscle bundle of the temporalis (Shimokawa et al. 1998, Surg. Radiol. Anat. 20:329-334)(More)
We have manipulated the chick limb bud by dorsoventrally inverting the ectoderm, by grafting the AER to the dorsal or ventral ectoderm and by insertion of an FGF-4 soaked heparin bead into the mesoderm. After dorso-ventral reversal of the ectoderm, Wnt-7a expression is autonomous from an early stage of limb development in the original dorsal ectoderm.(More)
The morphogenesis of fungiform papillae occurs in a stereotyped pattern on the dorsal surface of the tongue in mice from embryonic day 12 (E12) to E17. The histological results and ultrastructural observations showed the development of specific structures in the epithelium into fungiform papillae. Prior to the morphological changes, the Bmp-4 and Shh(More)
For an accurate assessment of jaw movement, it is crucial to understand the comprehensive formation of the masticatory muscles with special reference to the relationship to the disc of the temporomandibular joint. Detailed dissection was performed on 26 head halves of 14 Japanese cadavers in order to obtain precise anatomical information of the positional(More)
We carried out detailed dissections of the branches of the mandibular nerve and muscles innervated by these branches to investigate their positional relationships. We made the following observations: 1) small branch of the auriculotemporal nerve penetrated the lateral pterygoid muscle; 2) the entire lingual nerve penetrated the medial pterygoid muscle; and(More)
The pes anserinus is composed of a combination of tendinous insertions of the sartorius, gracilis and semitendinosus muscles. Precise knowledge of the structures on the medial side of the knee and the relationships between fascia and tendons is critical for diagnosis, surgery, and the development of improved operative procedures of the knee. To obtain(More)
The dorsal surface of the mammalian tongue is covered with four kinds of papillae, fungiform, circumvallate, foliate and filiform papillae. With the exception of the filiform papillae, these types of papillae contain taste buds and are known as the gustatory papillae. The gustatory papillae are distributed over the tongue surface in a distinct spatial(More)