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Variation in the CYP3A enzymes, which act in drug metabolism, influences circulating steroid levels and responses to half of all oxidatively metabolized drugs. CYP3A activity is the sum activity of the family of CYP3A genes, including CYP3A5, which is polymorphically expressed at high levels in a minority of Americans of European descent and Europeans(More)
Opioid drugs, such as morphine, and the endogenous opioid peptides, namely the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins, exert a wide spectrum of physiological and behavioral effects, including effects on pain perception, mood, motor control, and autonomic functions. These effects are mediated via membrane-bound receptors, of which the best characterized are(More)
After the vertebrate lens is induced from head ectoderm, lens-specific genes are expressed. Transcriptional regulation of the lens-specific alphaA-crystallin gene is controlled by an enhancer element, alphaCE2. A gene encoding an alphaCE2-binding protein, L-maf(lens-specific maf), was isolated. L-maf expression is initiated in the lens placode and is(More)
E-cadherin is a cell surface glycoprotein responsible for Ca2+-dependent intercellular adhesion between epithelial cells; it is also called uvomorulin, L-CAM (ref. 3), cell-CAM 120/80 (ref.4) or Arc-1 (ref. 5). Because blocking the action of E-cadherin by monoclonal antibodies causes dispersion of compact cell colonies, this molecule is thought to be an(More)
Dorsal and ventral aspects of the eye are distinct from the early stages of development. The developing eye cup grows dorsally, and the choroidal fissure is formed on its ventral side. Retinal axons from the dorsal and ventral retina project to the ventral and dorsal tectum, respectively. Misexpression of the Tbx5 gene induced dorsalization of the ventral(More)
The pregnane X receptor (PXR)/steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) transcriptionally activates cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) when ligand activated by endobiotics and xenobiotics. We cloned the human PXR gene and analysed the sequence in DNAs of individuals whose CYP3A phenotype was known. The PXR gene spans 35 kb, contains nine exons, and mapped to(More)
Nuclear receptors comprise a large and expanding family of transcription factors involved in diverse aspects of animal physiology and development, the functions of which can be modulated in a spatial and temporal manner by access to small lipophilic ligands and/or the specificity of their own localized expression. Here we report the identification of a(More)
During vertebrate embryonic development, a key to unraveling specific functions of gene products is the capability to manipulate expression of the gene of interest at the desired time and place. For this, we developed a 'microelectroporation' technique by which DNA can be locally introduced into a targeted site of avian embryos, restricting spatial(More)
To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying lens development, we searched for members of the large Maf family, which are expressed in the mouse lens, and found three, c-Maf, MafB, and Nrl. Of these, the earliest factor expressed in the lens was c-Maf. The expression of c-Maf was most prominent in lens fiber cells and persisted throughout lens(More)
Much attention has focused on the aetiology of oxidative damage in cellular and organismal ageing. Especially toxic are the reactive oxygen byproducts of respiration and other biological processes. A mev-1(kn1) mutant of Caenorhabditis elegans has been found to be hypersensitive to raised oxygen concentrations. Unlike the wild type, its lifespan decreases(More)