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BACKGROUND There is a high incidence of hip fractures in patients with hemiplegic stroke. Bone mineral density (BMD) is decreased in the hemiplegic side in patients after stroke, correlating with the degree of paralysis and of hypovitaminosis D. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of risedronate in reducing the severity of osteoporosis and in decreasing(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although genetic epidemiologic studies have implicated several genetic variants as risk factors for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, the genetic determinants of these conditions remain largely unknown. We performed an association study to identify gene polymorphisms that confer susceptibility to atherothrombotic cerebral infarction,(More)
BACKGROUND The authors' previous investigations have disclosed low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentrations in 45 patients during long-term hospitalization following stroke (mean 5.9 ng/mL). This 25-OHD deficiency resulted from sunlight deprivation. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of sunlight exposure in increasing serum 25-OHD, in reducing(More)
OBJECTIVE We performed an association study to identify gene polymorphisms for assessing the genetic risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS The study population comprised 3151 unrelated Japanese individuals: 1141 stroke patients (636 with atherothrombotic cerebral infarction, 282 with intracerebral hemorrhage, and 223 with(More)
A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the aggressive appearance of plaques of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, which result from the sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the β- and γ-secretases. Aβ production is evaded by alternate cleavage of APP by the α- and γ-secretases. Carnosic acid (CA) has been proven to activate the(More)
Edaravone is a brain-penetrant free radical scavenger that is known to ameliorate postischemic neuronal dysfunction. The transcription factor Nrf2 plays an important role in the coordinated expression of stress-inducible genes. Here we examined the effects of edaravone and carnosic acid (CA), an Nrf2-inducer, on the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF)(More)
The non-amyloid beta component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid (NAC) is detected in cerebral amyloid angiopathy; and the precursor of NAC is now known to be identical to alpha-synuclein (alpha-S), a major component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease. We studied if cerebral vascular cells express alpha-S. Immunohistochemical studies of human cerebral(More)
Tau phosphorylation is associated with neurite outgrowth and morphogenesis in neurons. Since inflammatory stimuli induce marked morphological changes in astrocytes, we examined the effect of interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha), an inflammatory cytokine, on the expression and phosphorylation of tau protein in cultured human astrocytes. Western blot analysis(More)
Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one), a free radical scavenger, reduces brain edema in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We have addressed the effect of edaravone on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potential mediator of brain edema, in astrocytes exposed to hypoxia. Normal human astrocytes in culture were treated(More)
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides generally exerts its biological actions by binding to two major subtypes of CRF receptors: CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1 receptor) and CRF receptor type 2 (CRF2 receptor). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which three ligands altered phosphorylation of CREB and ERK 1/2, using AtT-20 cells(More)