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Full-grown Xenopus oocytes in first meiotic prophase contain an immensely enlarged nucleus, the Germinal Vesicle (GV), that can be injected with several hundred somatic cell nuclei. When the nuclei of mammalian somatic cells or cultured cell lines are injected into a GV, a wide range of genes that are not transcribed in the donor cells, including(More)
Differentiated cells can be experimentally reprogrammed back to pluripotency by nuclear transfer, cell fusion or induced pluripotent stem cell technology. Nuclear transfer and cell fusion can lead to efficient reprogramming of gene expression. The egg and oocyte reprogramming process includes the exchange of somatic proteins for oocyte proteins, the(More)
STUDY DESIGN The axonal growth potential of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in an organ culture system was investigated. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of neuronal injury and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on the axonal growth potential of 2 types of nociceptive DRG neurons: nerve growth factor (NGF)-sensitive and glial cell line-derived(More)
Patient-specific somatic cell reprogramming is likely to have a large impact on medicine by providing a source of cells for disease modelling and regenerative medicine. Several strategies can be used to reprogram cells, yet they are generally characterised by a low reprogramming efficiency, reflecting the remarkable stability of the differentiated state.(More)
Eggs and oocytes have a remarkable ability to induce transcription of sperm after normal fertilization and in somatic nuclei after somatic cell nuclear transfer. This ability of eggs and oocytes is essential for normal development. Nuclear actin and actin-binding proteins have been shown to contribute to transcription, although their mode of action is(More)
Proper regulation of transcription is essential for cells to acquire and maintain cell identity. Transcriptional activation plays a central role in gene regulation and can be modulated by introducing transcriptional activators such as transcription factors. Activators act on their specific target genes to induce transcription. Reprogramming experiments have(More)
The authors discuss the cases of three patients in whom thoracic paraplegia developed after lumbar spinal decompressive surgery for slight lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Careful computerized tomography myelography and magnetic resonance imaging examination of the thoracic spine revealed another compressive lesion (spinal cord tumor, disc herniation,(More)
Nuclear transfer to oocytes is an efficient way to transcriptionally reprogram somatic nuclei, but its mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we identify a sequence of molecular events that leads to rapid transcriptional reprogramming of somatic nuclei after transplantation to Xenopus oocytes. RNA-seq analyses reveal that reprogramming by oocytes results in a(More)
PURPOSE Laminectomy is generally the treatment of choice for removal of spinal tumors. However, it has been shown that laminectomy may cause instability due to damage of posterior elements of the spinal column, which may induce subsequent kyphosis in the future. Therefore, to reduce the risk of deformity and spinal instability after laminectomy,(More)
Transposable elements in the genome are generally silenced in differentiated somatic cells. However, increasing evidence indicates that some of them are actively transcribed in early embryos and the proper regulation of retrotransposon expression is essential for normal development. Although their developmentally regulated expression has been shown, the(More)