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Blood samples (n=544) from two different populations (Pygmies and Bantus) in Cameroon, West Africa, were analysed. Serological tests indicated that the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in Bantus (20.3 %) was higher than that in Pygmies (2.3 %, P<0.0001), whereas the distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers was equally high in both(More)
The cellular environment differs from that of reconstituted materials mainly because of the presence of highly condensed biomacromolecules. To mimic the environment and conditions in living cells, we developed a method to prepare additive-free, highly concentrated cell extracts. First, we verified the requirement for specific salts and buffers for(More)
Cell-sized water-in-oil droplet covered by a lipid layer was used to understand how lipid membranes affect biochemical systems in living cells. Here, we report a remarkable acceleration of gene expression in a cell-sized water-in-oil droplet entrapping a cell-free translation system to synthesize GFP (green fluorescent protein). The production rate of GFP(More)
Replication of all living cells relies on the multirounds flow of the central dogma. Especially, expression of DNA replication proteins is a key step to circulate the processes of the central dogma. Here we achieved the entire sequential transcription-translation-replication process by autonomous expression of chromosomal DNA replication machineries from a(More)
The levels of expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in liver are associated with response to treatment with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV). However, associations between the responses of ISGs to IFN-based therapy and treatment efficacy or interleukin-28B (IL28B) genotype have not yet been determined. Therefore, we(More)
BACKGROUND Sorafenib has been approved in the indication of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, but there are many cases in which administration of the drug is discontinued due to severe side effects. In this study, we compared the characteristics of patients who continued and discontinued sorafenib. METHODS Ninety-six patients (75 men and 21 women)(More)
The growth mechanism of Si-faceted dendrite was studied using an in situ observational technique. We directly observed the growth processes of Si-faceted dendrites from Si melts. It is found that triangular corners with an angle of 60 degrees are formed at the dendrite tip. We present an original growth model for faceted dendrites based on the experimental(More)
Lysine biosynthesis of Thermus thermophilus proceeds in a similar way to arginine biosynthesis, and some lysine biosynthetic enzymes from T. thermophilus so far investigated have the potential to function in arginine biosynthesis. These observations suggest that arginine might regulate the expression of genes for lysine biosynthesis. To test this(More)
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is a powerful tool for the preparation of toxic proteins, directed protein evolution, and bottom-up synthetic biology. The transcription-translation machinery for CFPS is provided by cell extracts, which usually contain 20-30 mg/mL of proteins. In general, these cell extracts are prepared by physical disruption; however,(More)
Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPK) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reversible phosphotransfer of γ-phosphates between di- and triphosphonucleosides. NDPK-D (Nm23-H4) is the only member of the NDPK family with a mitochondrial targeting sequence. Despite the high expression of NDPK-D in the developing central nervous system, its function remains(More)