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Seven types (A-G) of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) target peripheral cholinergic neurons where they selectively proteolyze SNAP-25 (BoNT/A, BoNT/C1, and BoNT/E), syntaxin1 (BoNT/C1), and synaptobrevin (BoNT/B, BoNT/D, BoNT/F, and BoNT/G), SNARE proteins responsible for transmitter release, to cause neuromuscular paralysis but of different durations. BoNT/A(More)
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum is a potent inhibitor of acetylcholine release in the neuromuscular junction and has been used to treat many disorders related to excessive muscle contraction. However, BoNT-A has recently been used in pain therapy to treat myofascial pain, low back pain and various types of(More)
Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) has been used to treat pathological pain conditions although the mechanism is not entirely understood. Subcutaneous (s.c.) BOTOX also inhibits inflammatory pain in the rat formalin model, and the present study examined whether this could be due to a direct action on sensory neurons. BOTOX (3.5-30 U/kg) was injected s.c. into(More)
Excessive release of inflammatory/pain mediators from peripheral sensory afferents renders nerve endings hyper-responsive, causing central sensitization and chronic pain. Herein, the basal release of proinflammatory calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was shown to increase the excitability of trigeminal sensory neurons in brainstem slices via CGRP1(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A), a potent therapeutic used to treat various disorders, inhibits vesicular neurotransmitter exocytosis by cleaving SNAP25. Development of cell-based potency assays (CBPAs) to assess the biological function of BoNT/A have been challenging because of its potency. CBPAs can evaluate the key steps of BoNT action: receptor(More)
Blockade of acetylcholine release by botulinum neurotoxin type A at the neuromuscular junction induces the formation of an extensive network of nerve-terminal sprouts. By repeated in vivo imaging of N-(3-triethyl ammonium propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide uptake into identified nerve endings of the mouse sternomastoid muscle after a(More)
Botulinum toxins can effectively and selectively disrupt and modulate neurotransmission in striated muscle. Recently, urologists have become interested in the use of these toxins in patients with detrusor overactivity and other urological disorders. In both striated and smooth muscle, botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is internalized by presynaptic neurons after(More)
  • Kei Aoki
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International…
  • 2001
This study compared the respective intramuscular (IM) safety margins of two preparations of botulinum toxin (BTX) serotype A and one preparation each of BTX serotypes B and F in mice. Mice received an IM injection (0-200 U kg(-1) body weight) of BTX-A (BOTOX or DYSPORT), an experimental preparation of BTX-B (WAKO Chemicals, Inc.), or an experimental(More)
The purpose of this paper was to simultaneously examine changes in urothelial ATP and NO release in normal and spinal cord injured animals as well as in spinal cord injured animals treated with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A). Furthermore we correlated changes in transmitter release with functional changes in bladder contraction frequency, and determined(More)
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is increasingly being used for the treatment of childhood spasticity, particularly cerebral palsy. However, until very recently, all such use in this indication has been unapproved with no generally accepted treatment protocols, resulting in considerable uncertainty and variation in its use as a therapeutic agent. In view of(More)