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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the brain has been associated with a severe dementing illness in children and adults. However, HIV-1 antigens are most frequently found in macrophages and microglial cells. To determine the extent of susceptibility of neuroglial cells to infection, the HIV-1 genome was introduced into cells cultured(More)
JC virus is a neurotropic virus that causes the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in humans. In order to understand the neurotropic nature of this virus, we examined the binding of nuclear proteins to the viral regulatory region. A close association of nuclear factor-1 (NF-1) and Jun protein binding sites was found. These(More)
The human polyomavirus, JCV, is the causative agent of the central nervous system demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The principal target of JCV infection in the central nervous system (CNS) is the myelinating oligodendrocyte. However, the site of JCV multiplication outside of the CNS and the mechanism by which virus(More)
Studies of the pathogenesis and molecular biology of JC virus infection over the last two decades have significantly changed our understanding of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, which can be described as a subacute viral infection of neuroglial cells that probably follows reactivation of latent infection rather than being the consequence of(More)
We have initiated a study to identify host proteins which interact with the regulatory region of the human polyomavirus JC (JCV), which is associated with the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. We examined the interaction of nuclear proteins prepared from different cell lines with the JCV regulatory region by DNA binding gel(More)
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. This bacterium is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. It has also been estimated to present a considerable risk as a potential biothreat agent. There are currently no(More)
Nuclear factor-1 (NF-1) is a multifunctional protein that participates in both transcription and replication. NF-1 proteins exist as a family of proteins that share some common structural and functional features but also demonstrate organ and cell type specific expression. Based upon these characteristics, the family of NF-1 proteins is divided into four(More)
Nonviable cell preparations of Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders, were evaluated as potential vaccine candidates in a BALB/c murine model. Three different B. mallei cell preparations plus Alhydrogel were evaluated: a heat-killed preparation, an irradiation-inactivated preparation, and a preparation of a capsule-negative mutant strain(More)
Burkholderia pseudomallei infection causes melioidosis and is often characterized by severe sepsis. Although rare in humans, Burkholderia mallei has caused infections in laboratory workers, and the early innate cellular response to B. mallei in human and nonhuman primates has not been characterized. In this study, we examined the primary cellular immune(More)
Burkholderia mallei is an obligate mammalian pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease glanders. Two live attenuated B. mallei strains, a capsule mutant and a branched-chain amino acid auxotroph, were evaluated for use as vaccines against aerosol-initiated glanders in mice. Animals were aerogenically vaccinated and serum samples were obtained before aerosol(More)