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To perform unilateral or bilateral upper thoracic ganglionectomy, we established a three-dimensional system of coordinates for T2 and T3 ganglia. For this purpose, the spatial relations were represented by drawings obtained from 50 Chinese cadavers. A simple stereotactic frame was constructed as an aid in performing the procedure. Then, according to the(More)
Group independent component analysis (gICA) was performed on resting-state data from 14 healthy subjects scanned on 5 fMRI scan sessions across 16 days. The data were reduced and aggregated in 3 steps using Principal Components Analysis (PCA, within scan, within session and across session) and subjected to gICA procedures. The amount of reduction was(More)
Many surface rendering techniques are currently available for the three-dimensional display of structure data captured by imaging devices. Comparatively fewer volume rendering techniques are also available for the same purpose. The relative performance of these two methodologies in visualization tasks has been a subject of much discussion recently. Although(More)
Micro positron emission tomography (PET) and micro single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), used for imaging small animals, have become essential tools in developing new pharmaceuticals and can be used, among other things, to test new therapeutic approaches in animal models of human disease, as well as to image gene expression. These imaging(More)
A postreconstruction method for correcting the beam-hardening artifacts in computed tomography (CT) images is proposed. This method does not require x-ray spectrum measurement. The authors assumed that a pixel in a CT image can be decomposed into equivalent tissue percentages, depending on its CT number. A scout view of the step wedges made of these(More)
Measurement of image quality is very important for various applications such as image compression, restoration and enhancement. Conventional methods (e.g., mean squared error; MSE) use error summation to measure quality change pixel by pixel and do not correlate well with subjective quality measurement. This is due to the fact that human eyes extract(More)
Many studies have been performed on quality evaluation for subtle differences in medical images. However, only limited success has been achieved. In this paper, medical images were prior manipulated by denoising, lossy compression and filtering. The Moran statistics is then applied to extract spatial information of images and using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS)(More)
We assume that the data bits of a pixel in digital images can be divided into signal and noise bits. The signal bits occupy the most significant part of the pixel and the noise bits the least significant part. The signal part of each pixel are correlated while the noise parts are uncorrelated. Two statistical methods, the Moran test and the join-count(More)
The three-dimensional (3D) object data obtained from a CT scanner usually have unequal sampling frequencies in the x-, y- and z-directions. Generally, the 3D data are first interpolated between slices to obtain isotropic resolution, reconstructed, then operated on using object extraction and display algorithms. The traditional grey-level interpolation(More)
The localization of the sympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the cardiac coronary arteries of the cat was investigated using retrograde axonal transport with horseradish peroxidase. We found after the enzyme was applied to the main trunk of the right coronary artery, and to the main trunk and the terminal branch of the ventral descending vessels(More)