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The functions of many open reading frames (ORFs) identified in genome-sequencing projects are unknown. New, whole-genome approaches are required to systematically determine their function. A total of 6925 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were constructed, by a high-throughput strategy, each with a precise deletion of one of 2026 ORFs (more than one-third of(More)
The mechanism responsible for immunoglobulin class switch recombination is unknown. Previous work has shown that class switch sequences have the unusual property of forming RNA-DNA hybrids when transcribed in vitro. Here we show that the RNA-DNA hybrid structure that forms in vitro is an R-loop with a displaced guanine (G)-rich strand that is(More)
Craniosynostosis syndromes are autosomal dominant human skeletal diseases that result from various mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor genes (Fgfrs). Apert syndrome (AS) is one of the most severe craniosynostosis syndromes and is associated with severe syndactyly of the hands and feet and with central nervous system malformations. AS is caused by(More)
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfr) comprise a widely expressed family of developmental regulators implicated in oligodendrocyte (OL) maturation of the CNS. Fgfr2 is expressed by OLs in myelinated fiber tracks. In vitro, Fgfr2 is highly upregulated during OL terminal differentiation, and its activation leads to enhanced growth of OL processes and the(More)
Apert syndrome (AS) is characterized by craniosynostosis (premature fusion of cranial sutures) and severe syndactyly of the hands and feet. Two activating mutations, Ser-252 --> Trp and Pro-253 --> Arg, in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) account for nearly all known cases of AS. To elucidate the mechanism by which these substitutions cause AS,(More)
V(D)J recombination is directed by recombination signal sequences. However, the flanking coding end sequence can markedly affect the frequency of the initiation of V(D)J recombination in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the coding end sequence effect can be qualitatively and quantitatively recapitulated in vitro with purified RAG proteins. We find that coding(More)
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is required for both immunoglobulin class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. AID is known to deaminate cytidines in single-stranded DNA, but the relationship of this step to the class switch or somatic hypermutation processes is not entirely clear. We have studied the activity of a recombinant form of the(More)
The human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus contains 39 functional human V(H) elements. All 39 V(H) elements (with their adjacent heptamer/nonamer signal) were tested for site-specific cleavage with purified human core RAG1 and RAG2, and HMG1 proteins in a 12/23-coupled cleavage reaction. Both nicking and hairpin formation were measured. The individual V(H)(More)
R-loops form at Sgamma3 and Sgamma2b Ig class switch regions in the chromosomes of stimulated murine primary B cells and are suspected to be a general feature of mammalian class switch regions. The in vivo upstream boundary of the R-loops is known to begin within the switch repeats. To determine how precisely the R-loop structure conforms to the repetitive(More)
The mechanism by which the cytidine deaminase activation-induced deaminase (AID) acts at immunoglobulin heavy-chain class switch regions during mammalian class switch recombination (CSR) remains unclear. R-loops have been proposed as a basis for this targeting. Here, we show that the difference between various forms of the Smu locus that can or cannot(More)