Kefas Mugittu

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The use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) at the community level has been advocated as a means to increase access to effective antimalarial medicines by high risk groups living in underserved areas, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. This strategy has been shown to be feasible and acceptable to the community. However, the parasitological(More)
Tanzania switched the antimalarial first line to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001 from ineffective chloroquine (CQ). By 2003 higher levels of SP resistance were recorded, prompting an urgent need for replacing the first line drug with ACT, as currently recommended by the World Health Organization. Despite this recommendation country-specific(More)
The efficacy of anti-malarial drugs is assessed over a period of 28-63 days (depending on the drugs' residence time) following initiation of treatment in order to capture late failures. However, prolonged follow-up increases the likelihood of new infections depending on transmission intensity. Therefore, molecular genotyping of highly polymorphic regions of(More)
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for use against uncomplicated malaria in areas of multi-drug resistant malaria, such as sub-Saharan Africa. However, their long-term usefulness in these high transmission areas remains unclear. It has been suggested that documentation of the S769N PfATPase6 mutations may indicate an emergence of(More)
Molecular markers for drug resistant malaria represent public health tools of great but mostly unrealized potential value. A key reason for the failure of molecular resistance markers to live up to their potential is that data on the their prevalence is scattered in disparate databases with no linkage to the clinical, in vitro and pharmacokinetic data that(More)
Systematic surveillance for resistant malaria shows high level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) across eastern and southern parts of Africa. This study assessed in vivo SP efficacy after two years of use as an interim first-line drug in Tanzania, and determined the rates of treatment failures obtained after 14 and 28(More)
Parasite drug resistance is partly conferred by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and monitoring them has been proposed as an alternative to monitoring drug resistance. Therefore, techniques are required to facilitate analyses of multiple SNPs on an epidemiological scale. We report a rapid and affordable microarray technique for application in(More)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes were used to characterise trypanosomes from cattle in Morogoro region of Tanzania. Blood samples collected from 390 beef and dairy cattle in selected farms in Morogoro region were examined for presence of trypanosomes using the buffy coat technique (BCT) and blood smears (BSs). Fifty-two(More)
Prior to the 2001 malarial treatment policy change in Tanzania, we conducted trials to assess the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and the usefulness of molecular markers in monitoring resistance. A total of 383 uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients (between 6 and 59 months old) were treated with SP and their responses were(More)
Tanzania adopted artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria in 2006. Recently, there was an anecdotal report on high malaria recurrence rate following AL treatment in in the (urban and peri-urban), western part of Tanzania. The current report is an exploratory study to carefully and systematically assess AL efficacy in the(More)