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All organisms have evolved strategies to regulate ion and pH homeostasis in response to developmental and environmental cues. One strategy is mediated by monovalent cation-proton antiporters (CPA) that are classified in two superfamilies. Many CPA1 genes from bacteria, fungi, metazoa, and plants have been functionally characterized; though roles of plant(More)
The time course of changes in the tissue impedance and the levels of extracellular transmitter and non-transmitter amino acids was studied in the striatum and hippocampus of the unanesthetized rat after cardiac arrest. Electrodes were implanted for the continuous measurement of tissue impedance so that a measure of the volume of extracellular space was(More)
Extracellular levels of amino acids were estimated in dialysates of the rat striatum that were collected 1, 2, and/or more than 5 days after surgery, before (resting release) and during exposure to high K concentrations (50 mM) or electroconvulsive shocks. The resting release of several amino acids (Glu, Asn, Thr, Tau, Tyr, Gly, and Ala) was higher 9 days(More)
Extracellular lactate of the rat hippocampus is inter alia increased by immobilization stress. The origin of lactate is, however, not well established, so it is not known whether it is mainly derived form neurons or glial cells. Dialysates were collected shortly (1 or 2 days) or with a delay (14 or 15 days) after implantation of the probe. In the short-term(More)
In an attempt to estimate the pool size of glutamate and other amino acids in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing neurons, we determined the content of 12 amino acids in the bilateral substantia nigra of rats, in which unilateral striatal lesions had been made with kainic acid two weeks earlier. The assay of the amino acids (including glutamate,(More)
The cations, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium, putative amino acid transmitters, and total protein contents were assessed in the frontal cortex, putamen, and substantia nigra of Huntington's disease (HD) patients and age-matched nonneurologic control subjects. In the HD frontal cortex and HD substantia nigra, only small increases in sodium levels(More)
The influence of desmethylimipramine (DMI) on the release of endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and some other amino acids from the rat thalamus was studied with a push-pull perfusion technique. Following HPLC the amino acids were fluorimetrically estimated. Added to the perfusion medium at a concentration of 10 mumol L-1, DMI caused a 5- to 10-fold(More)
Many photosynthetic organisms globally, including crops, forests and algae, must grow in environments where the availability of light energy fluctuates dramatically. How photosynthesis maintains high efficiency despite such fluctuations in its energy source remains poorly understood. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana K(+) efflux antiporter (KEA3) is(More)