Kees L. M. C. Franken

Learn More
BACKGROUND Confirming tuberculosis (TB) disease in suspects in resource limited settings is challenging and calls for the development of more suitable diagnostic tools. Different Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection phase-dependent antigens may be differentially recognized in infected and diseased individuals and therefore useful as diagnostic tools(More)
Hypoxia and low concentrations of nitric oxide have been reported to upregulate in vitro gene expression of 48 proteins of the dormancy (DosR) regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These proteins are thought to be essential for the survival of bacteria during persistence in vivo and are targeted by the immune system during latent infection in humans. Here(More)
Increasing knowledge about DosR regulon-encoded proteins has led us to produce novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens for immunogenicity testing in human populations in three countries in Africa to which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A total of 131 tuberculin skin test-positive and/or ESAT-6/CFP10-positive, human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult(More)
RATIONALE Due to the invasive nature of the procedures involved, most studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific immunity in humans have focused on the periphery rather than the site of active infection, the lung. Recently, antigens associated with Mtb-latency and -dormancy have been described using peripheral blood (PB) cells; however their(More)
BACKGROUND T-cell responses against dormancy-, resuscitation-, and reactivation-associated antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are candidate biomarkers of latent infection in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We established an assay based on two rounds of in vitro restimulation and intracellular cytokine analysis that detects T-cell responses to(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) resides as a persistent infection in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II+ B lymphocytes and is associated with a number of malignancies. The EBV lytic-phase protein gp42 serves at least two functions: gp42 acts as the coreceptor for viral entry into B cells and hampers T-cell recognition via HLA class II molecules through steric(More)
Leprosy, a chronic disease initiated by Mycobacterium leprae, is often complicated by acute inflammatory reactions. Although such episodes occur in at least 50 % of all leprosy patients and may cause irreversible nerve damage, no laboratory tests are available for early diagnosis or prediction of reactions. Since immune- and genetic host factors are(More)
In this paper we describe identification and characterization of Mycobacterium leprae ESAT-6 (L-ESAT-6), the homologue of M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 (T-ESAT-6). T-ESAT-6 is expressed by all pathogenic strains belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex but is absent from virtually all other mycobacterial species, and it is a promising antigen for immunodiagnosis(More)
BACKGROUND Recent interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-based studies have identified novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection phase-dependent antigens as diagnostic candidates. In this study, the levels of 11 host markers other than IFN-γ, were evaluated in whole blood culture supernatants after stimulation with M.tb infection phase-dependent antigens, for the(More)
BACKGROUND Field-applicable tests detecting asymptomatic Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection or predicting progression to leprosy, are urgently required. Since the outcome of M. leprae infection is determined by cellular- and humoral immunity, we aim to develop diagnostic tests detecting pro-/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines as well as(More)