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BACKGROUND Barley alpha-amylase is a 45 kDa enzyme which is involved in starch degradation during barley seed germination. The released sugars provide the plant embryo with energy for growth. The major barley alpha-amylase isozyme (AMY2) binds with high affinity to the endogenous inhibitor BASI (barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor) whereas the minor(More)
Barley alpha-amylase isozymes AMY1 and AMY2 contain three structural domains: a catalytic (beta/alpha)8-barrel (domain A) with a protruding loop (domain B; residues 89-152) that binds Ca2+, and a small C-terminal domain. Different parts of domain B secure isozyme specific properties as identified for three AMY1-AMY2 hybrids, obtained by homeologous(More)
The insect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) homolog, lipophorin receptor (LpR), mediates endocytic uptake of the single insect lipoprotein, high-density lipophorin (HDLp), which is structurally related to LDL. However, in contrast to the fate of LDL, which is endocytosed by LDLR, we previously demonstrated that after endocytosis, HDLp is sorted(More)
We have previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase-inducible degrader of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (Idol) as a post-translational modulator of LDLR levels. Idol is a direct target for regulation by liver X receptors (LXRs), and its expression is responsive to cellular sterol status independent of the sterol-response element-binding(More)
Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been indicated to activate glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) trafficking to the plasma membrane (PM) to enhance glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In skeletal and heart muscle cells, insulin directs the intracellular trafficking of the fatty acid translocase/CD36 to induce the uptake of cellular long-chain fatty acid (LCFA).(More)
Cell migration involves the integrins, their extracellular matrix ligands, and pericellular proteolytic enzyme systems. We have studied the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in cell migration, using human amnion WISH cells and human epidermoid carcinoma HEp-2 cells in an assay measuring migration from microcarrier beads and a modified(More)
To find VirG proteins with altered properties, the virG gene was mutagenized. Random chemical mutagenesis of single-stranded DNA containing the Agrobacterium tumefaciens virG gene led with high frequency to the inactivation of the gene. Sequence analysis showed that 29% of the mutants contained a virG gene with one single-base-pair substitution somewhere in(More)
While the intracellular pathways of ligands after receptor-mediated endocytosis have been studied extensively in mammalian cells, in insect cells these pathways are largely unknown. We transfected Drosophila Schneider line 2 (S2) cells with the human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and transferrin (Tf) receptor (TfR), and used endocytosis of(More)
High-density lipophorin (HDLp) in the circulation of insects is able to selectively deliver lipids to target tissues in a nonendocytic manner. In Locusta migratoria, a member of the LDL receptor family has been identified and shown to mediate endocytosis of HDLp in mammalian cells transfected with the cDNA of this receptor. This insect lipophorin receptor(More)
Circulatory lipid transport in animals is mediated to a substantial extent by members of the large lipid transfer (LLT) protein (LLTP) superfamily. These proteins, including apolipoprotein B (apoB), bind lipids and constitute the structural basis for the assembly of lipoproteins. The current analyses of sequence data indicate that LLTPs are unique to(More)