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Secondary bacterial infection often occurs after pulmonary virus infection and is a common cause of severe disease in humans, yet the mechanisms responsible for this viral-bacterial synergy in the lung are only poorly understood. We now report that pulmonary interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) produced during T cell responses to influenza infection in mice(More)
The ability of exogenous interleukin-12 (IL-12) to elicit protective innate immune responses against the extracellular pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae was tested by infecting BALB/c mice intranasally (i.n.) with S. pneumoniae after i.n. administration of IL-12. It was found that administration of IL-12 resulted in lower bacterial burdens in the infected(More)
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an important anti-inflammatory molecule that can cause immunosuppression and long-term pathogen persistence during chronic infection of mice with viruses such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. However, its specific role in immunity to acute viral infections is not fully understood. We found that IL-10 plays a detrimental role(More)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a leading contributor to mortality during recent influenza pandemics. The mechanism for this influenza-induced susceptibility to secondary S. aureus infection is poorly understood. In this study, we show that innate antibacterial immunity was significantly suppressed during the recovery stage(More)
The importance of IgA for protection at mucosal surfaces remains unclear, and in fact, it has been reported that IgA-deficient mice have fully functional vaccine-induced immunity against several bacterial and viral pathogens. The role of respiratory Ab in preventing colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae has now been examined using polymeric IgR knockout(More)
T cell epitopes have been found to be shared by circulating, seasonal influenza virus strains and the novel pandemic H1N1 influenza infection, but the ability of these common epitopes to provide cross-protection is unknown. We have now directly tested this by examining the ability of live seasonal influenza vaccine (FluMist) to mediate protection against(More)
Secondary pulmonary infections by encapsulated bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus following influenza represent a common and challenging clinical problem. The reasons for this polymicrobial synergy are still not completely understood, hampering development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Although(More)
The study of pathogenic mechanisms of disease can be greatly facilitated by studying genetic differences in susceptibility to infection. In the present study, we compared the severity of pneumococcal infection in C57BL/6 (B6) and 129Sv mice. The results showed that 129Sv mice were remarkably more susceptible to pneumococcal infection than B6 mice. Bacterial(More)
The glucan-binding protein-A (GbpA) of Streptococcus mutans has been shown to contribute to the architecture of glucan-dependent biofilms formed by this species and influence virulence in a rat model. As S. mutans synthesizes multiple glucosyltransferases and nonglucosyltransferase glucan-binding proteins (GBPs), it is possible that there is functional(More)
BACKGROUND Secondary bacterial infections following influenza represent a major cause of mortality in the human population, which, in turn, has led to a call for stockpiling of bacterial vaccines for pandemic preparedness. METHODS To investigate the efficacy of bacterial vaccination for protection against secondary pneumococcal infection, mice were(More)