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The Leydig cell-specific factor insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is involved in testicular descent during embryo development, and has been suggested to regulate spermatogenesis and bone metabolism in the adult. Using a new, sensitive assay specific for rodent INSL3, we have mapped the secretion of INSL3 into peripheral blood in mice and during postnatal male(More)
The human genome project has identified, besides ovarian relaxin (RLN), six other relaxin-like molecules (RLN3, H1-RLN, INSL3-6), most of which appear to be expressed in the testis and/or male reproductive system, together with four different G-protein-coupled receptors responsive to one or other of these peptides. Earlier work on relaxin in the male(More)
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis comprises pulsatile GnRH from the hypothalamus impacting on the anterior pituitary to induce expression and release of both LH and FSH into the circulation. These in turn stimulate receptors on testicular Leydig and Sertoli cells, respectively, to promote steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. Both Leydig and(More)
The heterodimeric peptide hormone relaxin acts through the novel G-protein coupled receptor LGR7 to elicit the production of cAMP in the human monocyte cell line THP-1. The very small number of receptors on the cell surface, and the lack of response in cell membranes imply the involvement of a cytoplasmic signal amplification process. Here we show that this(More)
In myometrium of pigs and rats, though not humans, relaxin appears to mediate an inhibition of spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility, presumably acting through a G-protein coupled receptor (RXFP1) to generate cAMP. In humans, circulating relaxin is highest in the first trimester, including the time of implantation, when transitory uterine(More)
The small peptide hormone relaxin is a member of a rapidly evolving family of hormones and growth factors, whose mode of action appears to be particularly adapted to purely mammalian physiology. It is representative of a new category of hormones, referred to as neohormones, which appear to have evolved specifically to accommodate the needs of viviparity,(More)
STUDY QUESTION How does insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) concentration in blood vary across the menstrual cycle in women? SUMMARY ANSWER INSL3 is secreted by the theca interna cells of growing antral follicles and is phasic in its expression. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The relaxin-like hormone INSL3 is known to be expressed in follicles of several mammal(More)
The manner by which endocrine-disrupting xenobiotics, such as phthalates, can induce changes in the development of the male reproductive system still remains largely unknown. Herein, we have explored the application of ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS) to eliminate adult-type Leydig cells in the mature rat testis, leading to their regeneration from resident(More)
Maternal exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics or phthalates has been implicated in the distortion of early male reproductive development, referred to in humans as the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. It is not known, however, whether such early gestational and/or lactational exposure can influence the later adult-type Leydig cell phenotype. In this study,(More)