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BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis is a chronic, debilitating parasitic disease infecting more than 200 million people and is second only to malaria in terms of public health importance. Due to the lack of a vaccine, patient therapy is heavily reliant on chemotherapy with praziquantel as the World Health Organization-recommended drug, but concerns over drug(More)
BACKGROUND Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only widely available drug to treat schistosomiasis. Given the potential for drug resistance, it is prudent to search for novel therapeutics. Identification of anti-schistosomal chemicals has traditionally relied on phenotypic (whole organism) screening with adult worms in vitro and/or animal models of disease-tools that(More)
Schistosomiasis is a global health problem caused by several species of schistosome blood flukes. The initial stage of infection is invasion of human skin by a multicellular larva, the cercaria. We identified proteins released by cercariae when they are experimentally induced to exhibit invasive behavior. Comparison of the proteome obtained from skin(More)
Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is(More)
Although the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) plays a critical role in immune function, RA synthesis during infection is poorly understood. Here, we show that retinal dehydrogenases (Raldh), required for the synthesis of RA, are induced during a retinoid-dependent type-2 immune response elicited by Schistosoma mansoni infection, but not during a(More)
Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths (flatworms) of birds and mammals. As a parasitic disease of humans, schistosomiasis ranks second only to malaria in global importance. Schistosome larvae (cercariae) must invade and penetrate skin as an initial step to successful infection of the vertebrate host. Proteolytic enzymes secreted from the acetabular(More)
BACKGROUND The possible emergence of resistance to the only available drug for schistosomiasis spurs drug discovery that has been recently incentivized by the availability of improved transcriptome and genome sequence information. Transient RNAi has emerged as a straightforward and important technique to interrogate that information through decreased or(More)
BACKGROUND During invasion of human skin by schistosome blood fluke larvae (cercariae), a multicellular organism breaches the epidermis, basement membrane, and dermal barriers of skin. To better understand the pathobiology of this initial event in schistosome infection, a proteome analysis of human skin was carried out following invasion by cercariae of(More)
Papain-like cysteine endopeptidases have been recognized as potential targets for chemotherapy and serodiagnostic reagents in infections with the human parasitic helminth Schistosoma. A novel cathepsin B endopeptidase from adult S. mansoni has been isolated and characterized. The enzyme is termed SmCB2 to distinguish it from the first recorded schistosome(More)
Water borne cercaria(ae) of the trematode genus Schistosoma rapidly penetrate host skin. A single serine protease activity, cercarial elastase, is deposited in advance of the invading parasite by holocytosis of vesicles from ten large acetabular gland cells. Cercarial elastase activity is a composite of multiple isoforms. Genes coding for the isoforms can(More)