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The interaction forces of a fractured femur among the bone, muscle, and other soft tissues are not well understood. Only a small number of in vivo measurements have been made and with many limitations. Mathematical modeling is a useful alternative, overcoming limitations and allowing investigation of hypothetical simulated reductions. We aimed to develop a(More)
The principals and procedure of long bone surgery are presented and the need for robotic assistance is established. Existing problems include radiation exposure from fluoroscopy, mental strain from reconstructing 3-dimensional images and physical fatigue from overcoming fracture deforming forces. These problems are addressed by a proposed fracture reduction(More)
This study describes a novel fabrication technique to grow gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) directly on seeded ZnO sacrificial template/polymethylsilsesquioxanes (PMSSQ)/Si using low-temperature hydrothermal reaction at 80°C for 4 h. The effect of non-annealing and various annealing temperatures, 200°C, 300°C, and 400°C, of the ZnO-seeded template on AuNP size(More)
This paper reports on the creation of a low-cost, disposable sensor for low flow velocities, constructed from extruded micro-sized 'hair' of conducting polymer PEDOT. These microstructures are inspired by hair strands found in many arthropods and chordates, which play a prime role in sensing air flows. The paper describes the fabrication techniques and the(More)
Flexible pneumatic actuators have been broadly explored in soft robotic engineering field where large strokes are required to interface with human body in delicate environments. Some of them have successfully demonstrated the capability of contracting, extending, bending, and/or twisting. This paper presents a precise and effective way of designing a(More)
This paper describes the kinematics and the dynamics of a 3-DOF pneumatic muscle driven wearable parallel robot designed for ankle rehabilitation treatments. Several important performance indices are identified to accomplish the requirements of the ankle rehabilitation treatment and the wearable robot design. It is found that some of these indices are(More)