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Ethanol effects on two types of motor activity and on lever responding for food delivered on a fixed-ratio 20 (FR 20) reinforcement schedule were compared using C57BL/6 (C57) mice. Low doses of ethanol (1-2 g/kg) transiently elevated horizontal activity and high doses (2.5 and 3.0 g/kg) reduced this behavior throughout testing with a slight recovery toward(More)
Ro 15-4513, a partial benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist, counteracts many of the effects of ethanol, however, its effects on ethanol discrimination in operant paradigms remains unclear. The present study examined the effects of Ro 15-4513 on ethanol discrimination by female C57BL/6 mice in a food-reinforced behavior-operant paradigm. Under the time(More)
Although the partial benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist, Ro 15-4513, counteracts many ethanol effects, its effect on operant behavior or on ethanol-induced changes in this behavior, remains controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of Ro 15-4513, ethanol, and their interaction on behavior maintained by an FR 20 schedule of food(More)
Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), classified as a gammaretrovirus, has a variety of hosts, including chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys, and wild birds. REV causes a series of pathological syndromes, especially the immunosuppression of the host, which may lead to an increased susceptibility to other pathogens, thus greatly damaging the poultry industry. Mixed(More)
A bacterial artificial chromosome clone, designated LCY, was constructed from a Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2) isolate from a GaHV-2 and reticuloendotheliosis virus co-infected clinical sample. The LCY GaHV-2 insert was sequenced and found to consist of 175,319 nucleotides. LCY GaHV-2 open reading frames (ORFs) had a high sequence identity to those of(More)
During the course of our continuous surveillance of Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), 44 isolates were obtained from GaHV-2-positive chickens of different flocks in China from 2009 to 2013. The meq gene, considered as a major GaHV-2 oncogene, was sequenced and was found to contain an open reading frame of 1020 nucleotides encoding a 339 amino acid (aa)(More)
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