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Initial mutagenesis studies exploring the ligand recognition model of A1 adenosine receptor (A1R) mainly focused on the residues in the 5th-7th transmembrane domains (TMs5-7). Little is known about the role of residues in TM2. To explore the importance of reserved hydrophobic region in TM2 of A1R, we mutated the hydrophobic residues at positions 65 and 69(More)
The effects of paeoniflorin (PF), a compound isolated from Paeony radix, on neurological impairment and histologically measured infarction volume following transient and permanent focal ischemia were examined in Sprague-Dawley rats. In transient ischemia model, rats were subjected to a 1.5-h occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The administration(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Paeoniflorin (PF) has ameliorative effects on learning and memory impairment and cerebral ischaemia in rats and has protective effects against the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. The neuroprotective effects of PF are most probably derived from its anti-inflammatory property. Abnormally high levels of(More)
The anti-inflammatory activity of the predominant procyanidin dimer in cocoa, dimer B2, was investigated in this study. Pretreatment of the procyanidin dimer B2 reduced COX-2 expression induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in differentiated human monocytic cells (THP-1) in culture. To further elucidate the underlying mechanism of COX-2(More)
Western blot has been used to study the time-course effect of the two most popular parkinsonian neurotoxins, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, i.p.) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, intra-substantia nigra), on the expression of several regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS2, 4 and 9) in striatum in rodents. During the few days after MPTP(More)
AIM To understand the mechanism of the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediated by the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R). METHODS Primary cultured rat cortical neurons subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and HEK293/A(1)R cells were treated with the A(1)R-specific agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). Phospho-EGFR,(More)
The antagonistic interactions between adenosine A1 receptors and dopamine D1 receptors were studied in a human embryonic kidney 293 cell line stably cotransfected with human adenosine A1 receptor and dopamine D1 receptor cDNAs. In the cotransfected cells, but not in control cells only transfected with dopamine D1 receptors, adenosine A1 receptor agonist(More)
The present study was designed to examine the effects of adenosine A(1) receptor on dopamine D(1) receptor desensitization in a human embryonic kidney 293 cell line stably cotransfected with human adenosine A(1) receptor and dopamine D(1) receptor cDNAs (A(1)D(1) cells) by means of cAMP accumulation assay. Long-term exposure of A(1)D(1) cells to dopamine(More)
In higher plants, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.27, AGPase), a heterotetrameric enzyme comprised of two small and two large subunits, carries out the first committed step of starch synthesis. To characterize the AGPase genes in lotus, we cloned a small subunit and a large subunit of AGPase using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)(More)
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