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The emerging literature implicates a role for glia/cytokines in persistent pain. However, the mechanisms by which these non-neural elements contribute to CNS activity-dependent plasticity and pain are unclear. Using a trigeminal model of inflammatory hyperalgesia, here we provide evidence that demonstrates a mechanism by which glia interact with neurons,(More)
Spinal glial reaction and proinflammatory cytokine induction play an important role in the development of chronic pain states after tissue and nerve injury. The present study investigated the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying descending facilitation of neuropathic pain with an emphasis on supraspinal glial-neuronal relationships. An early and(More)
Recently, several studies have suggested that neonatal noxious insult could alter future responses to painful stimuli. However, the manifestations, mechanisms, and even developmental nature of these alterations remain a matter of controversy. In part, this is due to the lack of detailed information on the neonatal sensitive period(s) during which noxious(More)
Comparison of the immunocytochemical localizations revealed distinct patterns of differential distribution and overlapping of calbindin-D28K (CB-D28K), calretinin (CR), calmodulin (CM) and parvalbumin (PV) in the rat spinal cord. In some areas, one of the four calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) appears to be predominant, for example, CB-D28K in lamina I and(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Recent studies show that peripheral injury activates both neuronal and nonneuronal or glial components of the peripheral and central cellular circuitry. The subsequent neuron-glia interactions contribute to pain hypersensitivity. This review will briefly discuss novel findings that have shed light on the cellular mechanisms of neuron-glia(More)
In the adult mammalian brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critically involved in long-term synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that supraspinal BDNF-tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) signaling contributes to pain facilitation. We show that BDNF-containing neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the central structure for pain modulation,(More)
Hyperalgesia in animal injury models is linked to activation of descending raphespinal modulatory circuits originating in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). A neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist microinjected into the RVM before or after inflammation produced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) resulted in an attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia. A(More)
Studies suggest that astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord are involved in the development of persistent pain induced by tissue inflammation and nerve injury. However, the role of glial cells in bone cancer pain is not well understood. The present study evaluated the spinal glial activation in a novel rat model of bone cancer pain produced by(More)
Recent studies indicate that descending pain modulatory pathways undergo time-dependent changes in excitability following inflammation involving both facilitation and inhibition. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of these phenomena are unclear. In the present study, we examined N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor gene expression and neuronal activity(More)