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Epidemiological and experimental studies have correlated hyperhomocysteinemia to a range of neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and Parkinson's disease. Although homocysteine-induced apoptosis in neurons has been extensively studied, little information is available regarding the effect of homocysteine on microglia. In this(More)
The unfolded protein response (UPR), which is activated by perturbations of the endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, has been shown to play an important role in innate immunity and inflammation. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of the UPR during immune responses. Using small RNA deep sequencing and reverse genetic(More)
Coccidioides is a primary fungal pathogen of humans, causing life-threatening respiratory disease known as coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in immunocompromised individuals. Recently, Sharpton et al (2009) found that the deuterolysin (M35) family genes were significantly expanded in both the Coccidioides genus and in U. reesii, and that Coccidioides has(More)
Nematode-trapping fungi are "carnivorous" and attack their hosts using specialized trapping devices. The morphological development of these traps is the key indicator of their switch from saprophytic to predacious lifestyles. Here, the genome of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Fres. (ATCC24927) was reported. The genome contains 40.07 Mb(More)
Since the application of molecular methods, culture-independent methods (CIMs) have been developed to study microbial communities from various environments. In the past 20 years, several methods based on the direct amplification and analyses of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene have been developed to directly study environmental microorganisms. These(More)
Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol) via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened(More)
Five new verticillin-type epipolysulfanyldioxopiperazines, gliocladine A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), and E (5), were isolated from wheat solid-substrate fermentation of Gliocladium roseum 1A, along with four known compounds, verticillin A (6), 11'-deoxyverticillin A (7), Sch52900 (8), and Sch52901 (9). Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D(More)
The Caenorhabditis elegans DAF-16 transcription factor is critical for diverse biological processes, particularly longevity and stress resistance. Disruption of the DAF-2 signaling cascade promotes DAF-16 activation, and confers resistance to killing by pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis.(More)
The nucleation of crystalline materials is a hotly debated subject in the physical sciences. Despite the emergence of several theories in recent decades, much confusion still surrounds the dynamic processes of nucleation. This has been due in part to the limitations of existing experimental evidence. Charged colloidal suspensions have been used as(More)