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A consistent clinical feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the sparing of eye movements and the function of external sphincters, with corresponding preservation of motor neurons in the brainstem oculomotor nuclei, and of Onuf's nucleus in the sacral spinal cord. Studying the differences in properties of neurons that are vulnerable and resistant(More)
Regulated AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking at excitatory synapses is a mechanism critical to activity-dependent alterations in synaptic efficacy. The role of regulated AMPAR trafficking in insult-induced synaptic remodeling and/or cell death is, however, as yet unclear. Here we show that brief oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of brain(More)
The tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) is a lipid and protein phosphatase. We report here that PTEN physically associates with the NR1 and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in rat hippocampus. Downregulating the protein expression of PTEN inhibits the function of extrasynaptic NMDARs and decreases NMDAR(More)
BACKGROUND Leptin and insulin are long-term regulators of body weight. They act in hypothalamic centres to modulate the function of specific neuronal subtypes, by altering transcriptional control of releasable peptides and by modifying neuronal electrical activity. A key cellular signalling intermediate, implicated in control of food intake by these(More)
In obesity and diabetes, the ability of hypothalamic neurons to sense and transduce changes in leptin and insulin levels is compromised. The effects of both hormones require intracellular signalling via the PI3-kinase pathway, which is inhibited by the phosphatase PTEN. We show that leptin-stimulated F-actin depolymerization in mouse hypothalamic cells is(More)
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, is widely involved in the regulation of protein synthesis. Here we show that the PTEN protein is enriched in cell bodies and axon terminals of purified motor neurons. We explored the role of the PTEN pathway by manipulating PTEN expression in(More)
Gene expression profiling has been used previously with spinal cord homogenates and laser capture microdissected motor neurons to determine the mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, while cellular and animal model work has focused on superoxide dismutase 1-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Here we demonstrate that expression of arfaptin 2/POR1 (partner of Rac1) in cultured cells induces the formation of pericentriolar and nuclear aggregates, which morphologically resemble mutant huntingtin aggregates characteristic of HD. Endogenous arfaptin 2 localizes to aggregates(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age(More)
Innovation provides the means for enterprises to survive and grow. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous characteristics, it's difficult to manage innovation across the extended enterprise. A novel vision for Semantic Innovation Management (SIM) is introduced. The system architecture combines ontology, inference and mediation technologies used to create(More)