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Terahertz (THz) radiation probes intermolecular interactions through crystal lattice vibrations, allowing the characterization of solid materials. Thus, THz spectroscopy is a promising alternative to mainstream solid-state analytical tools such as X-ray diffraction or thermal analysis. The method provides the benefits of online measurement, remote sampling(More)
The steps of the standard method to determine soluble aluminium concentration are filtering, followed by acidifying, then analysing with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). When applied to alkaline humic water, acidification gives rise to the formation of humic acid as a brown particulate matter. Of the total soluble aluminium in the original(More)
A feedback control strategy is applied to enhance the performance of a laboratory-scale pulsed combustor operating near the lower flammability limit. As with many combustion processes, at lean conditions, combustion instabilities develop which result in complex, lowfrequency fluctuations in fuel concentration and lead directly to misfire and flameout. The(More)
Quantitative characterization of fluidized-bed hydrodynamics is important for process monitoring and validation of dynamic models. Using a two-dimensional fluidized bed of Geldart Group B particles, we experimentally investigated the situation where multiple pressure sensors were mounted on the walls of a bubbling fluidized bed. Our objective was to(More)
The behavior of a laboratory-scale pulsed combustor is shown to undergo a global bifurcation as the equivalence ratio of the propane-air mixture is reduced toward the lean flammability limit. At near-stoichiometric and moderately lean conditions, the acoustically driven combustion oscillations exhibit small, stochastic cycle-tocycle variations. At very lean(More)
We apply symbol-sequence analysis to pulse-combustor oscillations to characterize the onset of instabilities near the fuel-lean limit. Using data from a laboratory combustor, we demonstrate that such techniques can be very useful for finding and classifying complex pressure patterns which can be precursors to misfires and flameout. On-line diagnosis of(More)