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The apical complex of Toxoplasma gondii is widely believed to serve essential functions in both invasion of its host cells (including human cells), and in replication of the parasite. The understanding of apical complex function, the basis for its novel structure, and the mechanism for its motility are greatly impeded by lack of knowledge of its molecular(More)
Cell migration requires the transmission of motion generated in the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular environment through a complex assembly of proteins in focal adhesions. We developed correlational fluorescent speckle microscopy to measure the coupling of focal-adhesion proteins to actin filaments. Different classes of focal-adhesion structural and(More)
The protozoan phylum Apicomplexa encompasses approximately 5000 species of obligate intracellular parasites, including those responsible for malaria and toxoplasmosis. Rather than dividing by binary fission, apicomplexans use a remarkable mechanism for replication, assembling daughters de novo within the cytoplasm. Here, we exploit time-lapse microscopy of(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can initiate infection by cell-free particle and cell-cell contact-dependent transmission. In this study we use a novel infectious coculture system to examine these alternative modes of infection. Cell-to-cell transmission is relatively resistant to anti-HCV glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal immunoglobulin isolated(More)
UNLABELLED Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection of Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells results in focal areas of infection where transmission is potentiated by cell-cell contact. To define route(s) of transmission, HCV was allowed to infect hepatoma cells in the presence or absence of antibodies that neutralize cell-free virus infectivity. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs)(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped positive-stranded RNA hepatotropic virus. HCV pseudoparticles infect liver-derived cells, supporting a model in which liver-specific molecules define HCV internalization. Three host cell molecules have been reported to be important entry factors or receptors for HCV internalization: scavenger receptor BI, the(More)
Viruses initiate infection by attaching to molecules or receptors at the cell surface. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters cells via a multistep process involving tetraspanin CD81, scavenger receptor class B member I, and the tight junction proteins Claudin-1 and Occludin. CD81 and scavenger receptor class B member I interact with HCV-encoded glycoproteins,(More)
Cochannel (two-talker) speech separation is predominantly addressed using pretrained speaker dependent models. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised approach to separating cochannel speech. Our approach follows the two main stages of computational auditory scene analysis: segmentation and grouping. For voiced speech segregation, the proposed system(More)
Two models have been put forward to explain the growth of new Golgi during the cell cycle. The first suggests that a new Golgi grows out of the endoplasmic reticulum by de novo synthesis. The second suggests that a pre-existing Golgi is needed for the growth of a new one, that is, the Golgi is an autonomously replicating organelle. To resolve this issue, we(More)
The phylum Apicomplexa includes thousands of species of obligate intracellular parasites, many of which are significant human and/or animal pathogens. Parasites in this phylum replicate by assembling daughters within the mother, using a cytoskeletal and membranous scaffolding termed the inner membrane complex. Most apicomplexan parasites, including(More)