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As Earth’s most influential naturally-recurring sea and atmospheric oscillation, ENSO results in widespread changes in the climate system not only over much of the tropics and subtropics, but also in high latitudes via atmospheric teleconnections. In the present study, the linkages between springtime vegetation greenness over Eurasia and El Niño are(More)
Interfacial properties currently hinder the performance of Si/organic heterojunction solar cells for an alternative to high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaics. Here, we present a simple and repeatable wet oxidation method for developing the surface passivation layer, SiOx, on the Si surface for the fabrication of high-efficiency(More)
Light driven water splitting was achieved by a tandem dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell with two photoactive electrodes. The photoanode is constituted by an organic dye L0 as photosensitizer and a molecular complex Ru1 as water oxidation catalyst on meso-porous TiO2, while the photocathode is constructed with an organic dye P1 as photoabsorber and a(More)
Highly active and low-cost electrocatalysts for water oxidation are required due to the demands on sustainable solar fuels; however, developing highly efficient catalysts to meet industrial requirements remains a challenge. Herein, we report a monolayer of nickel-vanadium-layered double hydroxide that shows a current density of 27 mA cm(-2) (57 mA cm(-2)(More)
We investigated a range of different mesoporous NiO electrodes prepared by different research groups and private firms in Europe to determine the parameters which influence good quality photoelectrochemical devices. This benchmarking study aims to solve some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the performance of p-DSCs due to differences in the(More)
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen by sunlight is a promising approach to solve energy and environmental problems. In this work, silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) photocathodes decorated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for PEC water splitting were successfully prepared by a flexible and scalable electrochemical reduction(More)
Capacitated vehicle routing problem with pickups and deliveries (CVRPPD) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization problems which include goods delivery/pickup optimization, vehicle number optimization, routing path optimization and transportation cost minimization. The conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO) is difficult to find an(More)