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The specification and maintenance of growth sites are tightly regulated during cell morphogenesis in all organisms. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 2 reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (RHD2 NADPH) oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate a Ca2+ influx into the cytoplasm that is required for root hair growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. We(More)
In flowering plants, the tapetum, the innermost layer of the anther, provides both nutrient and lipid components to developing microspores, pollen grains, and the pollen coat. Though the programmed cell death of the tapetum is one of the most critical and sensitive steps for fertility and is affected by various environmental stresses, its regulatory(More)
Mechanosensing and its downstream responses are speculated to involve sensory complexes containing Ca2+-permeable mechanosensitive channels. On recognizing osmotic signals, plant cells initiate activation of a widespread signal transduction network that induces second messengers and triggers inducible defense responses. Characteristic early signaling events(More)
The molecular links between the cell cycle and defense responses in plants are largely unknown. Using synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells, we analyzed the cell cycle dependence of elicitor-induced defense responses. In synchronized cultured apoaequorin-expressing cells, the increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ induced by a proteinaceous elicitor, cryptogein, was(More)
Salinity stress, which induces both ionic and osmotic damage, impairs plant growth and causes severe reductions in crop yield. Plants are equipped with defense responses against salinity stress such as regulation of ion transport including Na(+) and K(+), accumulation of compatible solutes and stress-related gene expression. The initial Ca(2+) influx(More)
Autophagy has been shown to play essential roles in the growth, development and survival of eukaryotic cells. However, simple methods for quantification and visualization of autophagic flux remain to be developed in living plant cells. Here, we analyzed the autophagic flux in transgenic tobacco BY-2 cell lines expressing fluorescence-tagged NtATG8a as a(More)
Pharmacological evidence suggests that anion channel-mediated plasma membrane anion effluxes are crucial in early defense signaling to induce immune responses and hypersensitive cell death in plants. However, their molecular bases and regulation remain largely unknown. We overexpressed Arabidopsis SLAC1, an S-type anion channel involved in stomatal closure,(More)
Autophagy, a major catabolic pathway in eukaryotic cells, is essential in development, maintenance of cellular homeostasis, immunity and programmed cell death (PCD) in multicellular organisms. In plant cells, autophagy plays roles in recycling of proteins and metabolites including lipids, and is involved in many physiological processes such as abiotic and(More)
bscisic acid (ABA) is a sesquiterpene plant hormone that regulates a variety of plant processes including seed dormancy, seed maturation, closure of stomata, and adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. It has been 50 years since " abscisin " was originally reported, in 1961, but it has taken that many years to understand the basic mechanism of(More)
In this study, we investigated responses of growing and intact tobacco (N. tabacum cv Xanthi) seedlings to a fungal elicitor, a xylanase from Trichoderma viride (TvX). In addition to the induction of defense gene expression, TvX treatment caused the retardation of growth of seedlings. In the TvX-treated seedlings, growth of primary roots was markedly(More)