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Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a synaptic modulator as well as a neuroprotectant. Currently, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) is thought to be the major H(2)S-producing enzyme in the brain. We recently found that brain homogenates of CBS-knockout mice, even in the absence of PLP, produce H(2)S at levels similar to those(More)
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as a neuromodulator as well as neuroprotectant in the brain. H2S can be produced from cysteine by enzymes such as cystathionine beta-synthase. However, a mechanism for releasing H2S under physiologic conditions has not been identified. Here we show that H2S is released from bound sulfur, an intracellular store of sulfur,(More)
OBJECTIVES Nanomaterials are currently used in electronics, industrial materials, cosmetics, and medicine because they have useful physicochemical properties, such as strength, conductivity, durability, and chemical stability. As these materials have become widespread, many questions have arisen regarding their effects on health and the environment. In(More)
Irinotecan (7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin; CPT-11) is a widely used potent antitumor drug that inhibits mammalian DNA topoisomerase I (Topo I); however, overexpression of ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR/ABCP) can confer cancer cell resistance to SN-38, the active form of CPT-11. We have recently demonstrated that plasma membrane(More)
Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is the principal source of reducing power in numerous processes of physiological importance. We examined the influence of oxidative stress on the relative amounts of NADPH in human red blood cells (RBCs). To determine the homeostasis of the NADPH existing in the reduced form following oxidation, we(More)
In this work, we examined the antioxidant role of mucin, a typical sialic acid containing high-molecular weight glycoprotein. The function of mucin as a hydroxyl radical (.OH) scavenger was characterized using bovine submaxillary gland mucin (BSM). Non-treated BSM effectively protected DNA from the attack of .OH; however, desialylated BSM lost this(More)
Peroxiredoxin 2, a typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin, is the third most abundant protein in erythrocytes. It is understood that the physiologically functional state of peroxiredoxin 2 is the monomer, and that its role in scavenging low levels of H(2)O(2) results in the formation of disulfide-linked dimers, which are reversibly reduced to monomers by the(More)
Selenophosphate, an activated form of selenium that can serve as a selenium donor, is generated by the selD gene product, selenophosphate synthetase (SPS). Selenophosphate is required by several bacteria and by mammals for the specific synthesis of Secys-tRNA, the precursor of selenocysteine in selenoenzymes. Although free selenide can be used in vitro for(More)
Polysulfide is a bound sulfur species derived from endogenous H2S. When mouse neuroblastoma, Neuro2A cells were exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide after treatment with polysulfide, a significant decline in cell toxicity was observed. Rapid uptake of polysulfides induced translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus, resulting in acceleration of GSH synthesis and(More)
We examined the influence of oxidative stress on the relative amounts of various albumin-bound thiols in human plasma. To determine the ratio of thiols existing as mixed disulfides following oxidation, we developed a method combining fast purification of albumin using affinity columns and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence(More)