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Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a member of the pterin family that has a core structure of pyrazino-2,3-d-pyrimidine rings. Because BH4 is an essential cofactor for the biosynthesis of nitric oxide (a major vasodilator), there is growing interest in BH4 biochemistry in endothelial cells (the cells that line blood vessels). BH4 is synthesized via de novo and(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase was purified approximately 74,000-fold to apparent homogeneity from calf thymus with a yield of 3.2%. The enzyme was a monomeric protein of Mr = 59,000, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The action of glycohydrolase on poly(ADP-ribose) was exoglycosidic in the direction of adenosine(More)
GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCHI) is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, a key cofactor necessary for nitric oxide synthase and for the hydroxylases that are involved in the production of catecholamines and serotonin. In animals, the GTPCHI feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) binds GTPCHI to mediate feed-forward(More)
In the presence of phenylalanine, GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) forms a stimulatory 360-kDa complex with GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCHI), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin. The crystal structure of the stimulatory complex reveals that the GTPCHI decamer is sandwiched by two GFRP(More)
An essential cofactor for the endothelial NO synthase is tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B). In the present study, we show that in human endothelial cells, laminar shear stress dramatically increases H4B levels and enzymatic activity of GTP cyclohydrolase (GTPCH)-1, the first step of H4B biosynthesis. In contrast, protein levels of GTPCH-1 were not affected by(More)
Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) is dependent on adequate cellular levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an important cofactor for the nitric oxide synthases. Vascular diseases are often characterized by vessel wall inflammation and cytokine treatment of endothelial cells increases BH4 levels, in part through the induction of GTP cyclohydrolase I(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) regulates the biological activity of many enzymes and other functional proteins as well as gene expression. In this study, we tested whether pretreatment with NO regulates NO production in response to cytokines in cultured rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were recovered in fresh medium for 24 h following pretreatment with the NO donor(More)
Mammalian GTP cyclohydrolase I is a decameric enzyme in the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, which is an essential cofactor for enzymes producing neurotransmitters such as catecholamines and for nitric oxide synthases. The enzyme is dually regulated by its feedback regulatory protein GFRP in the presence of its(More)
The acetylesterase (AE) activity of DVIM (diarrhea virus of infant mice) was assigned to the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein. The substrate specificity was examined using the natural substrate bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) and/or synthetic substrates p-nitrophenylacetate (p-NiA) and alpha-naphthylacetate (alpha-NA) and compared with several strains(More)
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) have been anticipated to regulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-dependent superoxide anion radical (O2*-) generation in endothelial cells. It is not known, however, whether hsp90 and BH4 increase O2*- in a synergistic manner, or whether this increase is a consequence of downstream(More)