Kazuyoshi Kawakami

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IL-17 is a cytokine that induces neutrophil-mediated inflammation, but its role in protective immunity against intracellular bacterial infection remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that IL-17 is an important cytokine not only in the early neutrophil-mediated inflammatory response, but also in T cell-mediated IFN-gamma production and(More)
Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d. These cells express an evolutionarily conserved, invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR), but the forces that drive TCR conservation have remained uncertain. Here we show that NKT cells recognized diacylglycerol-containing glycolipids from Streptococcus pneumoniae, the(More)
The present study was conducted to critically determine the protective role of IL-18 in host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. IL-18-deficient (knockout (KO)) mice were slightly more prone to this infection than wild-type (WT) mice. Sensitivity of IL-12p40KO mice was lower than that of IL-12p40/IL-18 double KO mice. IFN-gamma production(More)
Recent studies have shown that anemia is commonly observed after exposure to pathogens or pathogen-derived products, which are recognized via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). In the current study, we demonstrate that CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-2006, a TLR9 ligand with phosphodiester (PO; 2006-PO) but not with the phosphorothioate backbone, selectively inhibits(More)
The present study was designed to elucidate the role of TLR2, TLR4 and dectin-1 in the production of IL-12p40 by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) infected with Penicillium marneffei. IL-12p40 production was almost completely abrogated in BM-DCs from TLR2 gene-knockout (KO) and MyD88KO mice, but not from TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice compared to(More)
Although α-1,3-glucan is one of the major cell wall polysaccharides in filamentous fungi, the physiological roles of α-1,3-glucan remain unclear. The model fungus Aspergillus nidulans possesses two α-1,3-glucan synthase (AGS) genes, agsA and agsB. For functional analysis of these genes, we constructed several mutant strains in A. nidulans: agsA disruption,(More)
BACKGROUND There is a lack of information on the clinical characteristics of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB in the Jiangxi Province of China; furthermore, data have not been reported on the utility of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analyses in(More)
Although thymus-independent type 2 antigens generally do not undergo Ig class switching from IgM to IgG, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) induces the production of serotype-specific IgG. How this happens remains unclear, however. In the present study, PPV immunization induced production of IgG as well as IgM specific for a serotype 3-pneumococcal(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and the causative agent of the disease cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis is initiated as a pulmonary infection and in conditions of immune deficiency disseminates to the blood stream and central nervous system, resulting in life-threatening meningoencephalitis. A number of studies have focused on the(More)