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Nitric oxide is synthesized in diverse mammalian tissues by a family of calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide synthases. The endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is targeted to the specialized signal-transducing membrane domains termed plasmalemmal caveolae. Caveolin, the principal structural protein in caveolae, interacts with eNOS and leads to(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) activates the soluble isoform of guanylate cyclase in platelets and inhibits platelet function. Several studies suggest the existence of a pathway for NO synthesis in platelets as a form of feedback inhibition, but the identity of the NO synthase (NOS) isoform present within platelets is unknown. We isolated human platelets, and(More)
N-Terminal myristoylation and thiopalmitoylation of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are required for targeting the enzyme to specialized signal-transducing microdomains of plasma membrane termed caveolae. We have previously documented that the subcellular localization of eNOS is dynamically regulated by agonists such as bradykinin,(More)
The aim of this study was to identify the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform expressed in freshly dispersed rabbit gastric smooth muscle cells and in cultured rabbit gastric, human intestinal, and guinea pig taenia coli smooth muscle cells. RT-PCR products of the predicted size (354 bp) were obtained with endothelial NOS (eNOS)-specific primers, but not(More)
In open abdominal surgical procedures, many surgical instruments, e.g., knives, cutting shears and clamps, are generally used. Therefore, a haptic interface should display reaction force of a soft biological tissue through such a surgical instrument. Simplest solution for this difficulty is that an actual instrument is mechanically mounted on the(More)
Dissection and removal of lesion area are fundamental operations in brain surgery. In order to correctly reproduce dissection and removal in brain surgery haptic simulation, mechanical properties of brain tissue must be investigated. In this work, porcine brains are used as specimens. Mechanical properties such as density, Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus,(More)
The handling of contacts between virtual objects is a fundamental problem of 6 DOF haptic rendering in virtual environments. Especially, the haptic rendering of the contact between rigid and deformable objects is challenging because the physics simulation with high computational burden must be calculated in real time with good stability. In this paper, we(More)
In this paper, a damage and fracture model of brain parenchyma is proposed for a haptic brain surgery simulation. It is assumed that microscopic damage begins by von Mises yield criterion, and the microscopic damage grows rate in proportion to volume strain. Tensile tests with two different strain rate were conducted using porcine brain parenchyma (tensile(More)