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Nitric oxide accounts for the activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor, which seems to have an important role in vasodilation and inhibition of platelet aggregation. In endothelial cells, one isoform of nitric-oxide synthase is constitutively expressed. Analysis of the cDNA encoding the human endothelial nitric-oxide synthase revealed that the mRNA(More)
In open abdominal surgical procedures, many surgical instruments, e.g., knives, cutting shears and clamps, are generally used. Therefore, a haptic interface should display reaction force of a soft biological tissue through such a surgical instrument. Simplest solution for this difficulty is that an actual instrument is mechanically mounted on the(More)
In neurosurgery, opening a brain fissure allows an operator to access to the basis cranii and to treat a disease part safely, but the operator is required highly sophisticated techniques. In order to develop a neurosurgery simulator enabling surgeons to train themselves for opening a brain fissure procedure, it is required to detect collision between a thin(More)
Ebselen, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazole-3(2H)-one can preferentially inhibit the activity of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase with little inhibition of endothelial constitutive NO synthase within a certain concentration range. This suggests that ebselen deserves further in vivo studies to examine its possible application to the therapy of septic shock(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), which accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor, is now thought to play a variety of roles in the nervous system and in immunologic reactions. NO is synthesized from L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). There are three isoforms of NOS; type I (neuronal), type II (inducible), and type III(More)
It has been known that cytotoxic-activated macrophages release an unstable vasorelaxing substance, nitric oxide. We have found that a more stable relaxing factor is released from those cells. This factor seems to be synthesized from L-arginine. It acts through the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase without affecting membrane potential. It has little(More)
Design and evaluation of an encountered-type haptic interface using MR fluid for surgical simulators Teppei Tsujita a , Kazuya Sase b , Atsushi Konno b , Masano Nakayama b , XiaoShuai Chen b , Koyu Abe b & Masaru Uchiyama b a Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University , 2-1-1 Katahira Aoba-ku, Sendai , 980-8577 , Japan b Graduate School of Engineering,(More)
In neurosurgery, effects of deformation should be considered to avoid damaging brain tissues. The goal of this study is to develop an automatic path planner considering the deformation of brain tissues. This paper shows a scheme which combines FEM (Finite Element Method) and an optimization method for optimization of retraction in order to approach a deep(More)
Dissection and removal of lesion area are fundamental operations in brain surgery. In order to correctly reproduce dissection and removal in brain surgery haptic simulation, mechanical properties of brain tissue must be investigated. In this work, porcine brains are used as specimens. Mechanical properties such as density, Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus,(More)