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We characterized the genetic diversity of the complete VP1 region of coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) isolated from patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Toyama from 1981 to 2007 to evaluate the relationship between epidemics and genetic changes. The predominant genogroups of CA16 changed from B to C in 1995-1998, and genogroup C(More)
Various genotypes of norovirus (NoV) (genogroup I genotype 1 [GI.1], -2, -4, -5, -8, -11, -12, and -14; GII.3, -4, -6, -7, -10, -13, -14, and -15), and sapovirus (SaV) (GI.1 and GI.2, GII.1, and GIV.1) were detected from raw sewage from April 2006 to March 2008, while limited numbers of genotypes of NoV (GI.8, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.13) and SaV (GII.3 and(More)
Recently, the recombination event of norovirus (NoV) has been reported with high frequency, suggesting that RNA recombination is a major driving force in NoV evolution. To assess the incidence of NoV recombination in a residential area, we conducted a molecular biological survey of NoVs existing in sewage water in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. Although GII/4(More)
An efficient application of eigenspace technique to recognize human behaviors is described. The present paper investigates two types of recognition, i.e., recognition of an unknown human posture and a particular behavior by identifying human postures among several behaviors. A number of different posture sets from some selected behaviors create universal(More)
A molecular biological survey on porcine norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SaV) was conducted in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, during fiscal year 2008. Both NoV and SaV were detected from swine fecal samples throughout the surveillance period, indicating that these viruses were circulating in this region. NoV strains detected in this study belonged to three(More)
For efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vivo, it is important to control the blood circulation of the delivery vehicle. Surface modification of the siRNA/cationic liposome complex (siRNA-lipoplex) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is expected to enhance circulation time in blood. However, we have recently reported that anti-PEG IgM(More)
Recently, we designed a PEG-coated cationic liposome to achieve dual targeting delivery of l-OHP to both tumor endothelial cells and tumor cells in a solid tumor. The targeted liposomal l-OHP formulation showed an efficient antitumor activity in a murine tumor model after three sequential liposomal l-OHP injections. This led us to assume that prior dosing(More)
Gene therapy is largely dependent on the development of efficient delivery vehicles. To prolong their circulating time, PEGylation of the surface of a delivery vehicle is frequently applied. However, we have reported previously that anti-PEG IgM produced by intravenous injection of PEG-coated liposome is responsible for enhanced clearance of second dose(More)
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is broadly considered the drug of choice for treating human colorectal cancer (CRC). However, 5-FU resistance, mainly caused by the overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, often leads ultimately to treatment failure. We here investigated the effect of Bcl-2 gene silencing, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) (siBcl-2),(More)
Epoxomicin potently and irreversibly inhibits the catalytic activity of proteasomal subunits. Treatment of proliferating cells with epoxomicin results in cell death through accumulation of ubiquinated proteins. Thus, epoxomicin has been proposed as a potential anti-cancer drug. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of epoxomicin on the in vitro(More)