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This study was designed to compare the effects of muscimol (GABA(A) agonist), baclofen (GABA(B) agonist) and nipecotic acid (GABA uptake inhibitor) on food intake in two chicken strains (meat-type and layer-type chicks). The intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of all GABA agents induced hyperphagia in layer-type chicks. However, in broiler chicks, there(More)
The present study was designed to examine the effect of specific opioid agonists on feeding behavior in neonatal chicks. The food intake of broiler chicks was significantly decreased by intracerebroventricular injection of DAMGO and beta-casomorphin, micro-opioid receptor agonists, at 30-min postinjection. In contrast, both delta-opioid receptor agonists(More)
The present study was designed to examine the effects of mu- and delta-opioid receptor ligands on feeding behavior in meat-type chicks. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of naltrexone (mu- and delta-antagonist), beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA; mu-antagonist), ICI-174,864 (ICI; delta-antagonist), or naloxonazine (NAL; mu1-antagonist) significantly(More)
In laparoscopic surgery, numerous devices have been developed to allow surgeons to manipulate the laparoscope by themselves. Some previously adopted approaches include hands-free strategies, such as eye tracking. In this letter, we propose a new approach for the control of an endoscopic manipulator using pupil variation, which has not been previously(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of our work was to develop an integrated system with image guidance and deformation simulation for the purpose of accurate needle insertion. METHODS We designed an ultrasound-guided needle insertion manipulator and physical model to simulate liver deformation. We carried out an in vivo experiment using a porcine liver to verify the(More)
This paper shows the viscoelastic and nonlinear organ deformation model for organ model-based control of needle insertion, in which the deformation of an organ is calculated intraoperatively and the needle is manipulated with organ deformation taken into consideration. An organ model including such detailed material characteristics is important to achieve(More)
Needle insertion treatments require accurate placement of the needle tip into the target cancer. However, it is difficult to insert the needle into the cancer because of cancer displacement due to the organ deformation. Then, a path planning using numerical simulation to analyze the deformation of the organ and the timing of puncture is important for the(More)
It is generally difficult to determine the material values of human tissue to input into an organ deformation model, because the material properties of human tissues are inherently uncertain because of their individual differences. In our work, we developed a promising approach that allows identification of the material parameters of the organ model by(More)
The coordination between the operator and laparoscope holder has a major effect on the process and results of laparoscopic surgery. The most intuitive method is for surgeons to manipulate the laparoscope by themselves. Here we demonstrate an endoscopic manipulator control system based on pupil movement that uses an intention recognition system to improve(More)
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids that play a major role in brain energy metabolism. This study was done to elucidate whether central injection of BCAAs influences feeding behavior in chicks. We found that the intracerebroventricular injection of leucine (200 microg) significantly stimulated food intake in neonatal chicks during(More)