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Ascending sensory information is conveyed from the thalamus to layers 4 and 6 of the sensory cortical areas. Interestingly, receptive field properties of cortical layer-6 neurons differ from those in layer 4. Do such differences reflect distinct inheritance patterns from the thalamus, or are they derived instead from local cortical circuits? To distinguish(More)
The kinds of change in facial expression which can be produced by a sender's neural control of facial muscles, and, at the same time, can be visually perceived by a listener are described in discrete symbols. The linguistic information supplemented by the facial expressions in signing is categorized into syllabic, lexical and syntactic components. In order(More)
ERRATUM Because of unexpected problems with e-mailing in Ukraine at the beginning of November 2013, communications with some of the authors of Nos. 5/6 (2013) of Vol. 45 were significantly delayed; thus the journal was unable to insert before publication the necessary corrections and changes made by the authors. In the paper by C. C. Lee and K. Imaizumi,(More)
Resolution of the fundamental frequency of speech sound required for the design of a speech processor of a cochlear implant device is investigated, with special regard to transmitting voice pitch information in Asian languages. Clinical application of the cochlear implant has spread rapidly in recent years to Asian countries where a variety of languages(More)
Background The foot arch serves important functions in regard to shock absorption and the action of walking. Simple and quantitative classification of foot arch types such as flat foot and high arch would be helpful in health support for the elderly. The present authors have developed a classification system for foot arch type showing high reliability using(More)
A multipurpose symbolic system which can describe all of the mouth shapes conveying various kinds of linguistic information in signing, speech dialogue, and speechreading is developed, taking account of the constraints of anatomical structure and neural control and the possibility of visual discrimination. In order to make the changes in the(More)
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