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Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal(More)
Recent studies have suggested that astrocytes release gliotransmitters (i.e., ATP, L-glutamate, D-serine, and peptide hormones) and participate actively in synaptic functioning. Although ATP release from astrocytes modulates the activity of neurons, the mechanisms regulating the ATP release from astrocytes and the source of ATP in astrocytes are not well(More)
Several nuclei in brain stem are well known to play an important role in supporting human life. However, the connection between neural changes of brain stem and the cause of death is not yet fully understood. Previously, in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) it has been suggested that impaired cardioventilatory control might contribute to cause of death.(More)
RATIONALE Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II is one of a pivotal enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, which is essential for energy production during simultaneous glucose sparing and a requirement for major energy supply, such as prolonged fasting or exercise. When infants require more energy than provided by the glycolytic system, they rely(More)
It is well recognized that glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter, which is removed from the synaptic cleft by excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) located on the perisynaptic astrocytes and that neuronal death has been associated with an increased extracellular glutamate concentration. In this study, we have immunohistochemically(More)
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and the greater part of this amino acid is removed from the synaptic cleft by excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) located on perisynaptic astrocytes. Recently, it was reported that the EAAT2 protein content changed in rats following forebrain ischemia and administration of methamphetamine. We(More)
More people are keeping pets in their homes but may not be sufficiently aware of the potential danger from infections. We report an autopsy case of a 57-year-old man affected by cirrhosis. Septic shock with Pasteurella multocida pneumonia was the cause of his death. P. multocida was the source of infection via the respiratory tract and caused pneumonia.(More)
There is extensive evidence in animal studies, particularly in vole species (Microtus), that oxytocin (OT) receptor and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) receptor 1a is critical for the regulation of maternal and paternal behavior, respectively. Human studies have gained insight into the relationship between both hormone receptor gene variants and behavior, but(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Sudden unexpected death in infancy Metabolic autopsy Next generation sequencing Fatty acid oxidation disorder Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency The recent introduction of metabolic autopsy in the field of forensic science has made it possible to detect hidden inherited metabolic diseases. Since the next generation(More)
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a popular mild central nervous system stimulant found in the leaves, seeds and fruits of various plants and in foodstuffs such as coffee, tea, and chocolate, among others. Caffeine is widely used and is not associated with severe side effects when consumed at relatively low doses. Although rarely observed, overdoses can(More)