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Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal(More)
We investigated the dynamic induction/expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) using human brains made available through death by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Astrocytes, microglia, and neutrophils were identified in tissue using immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), MHC class II antigen,(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a 32 kDa heat shock protein (HSP) that catalyzes heme to biliverdin, free iron and carbon monoxide in the brain. Furthermore, the release of free ferrous ion by HO-1 plays an essential role in ferritin synthesis, and ferritin stores iron either for intracellular utilization, or for detoxification. It is well known that HO-1(More)
Recent studies have suggested that astrocytes release gliotransmitters (i.e., ATP, L-glutamate, D-serine, and peptide hormones) and participate actively in synaptic functioning. Although ATP release from astrocytes modulates the activity of neurons, the mechanisms regulating the ATP release from astrocytes and the source of ATP in astrocytes are not well(More)
RATIONALE Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II is one of a pivotal enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, which is essential for energy production during simultaneous glucose sparing and a requirement for major energy supply, such as prolonged fasting or exercise. When infants require more energy than provided by the glycolytic system, they rely(More)
We analyzed the gene expression pattern in mouse skin following compression of the neck by fluorescent mRNA differential display (FDD-PCR). RNA was isolated from the skin tissue immediately or 30 min after ligation at the neck for 25 min resulting in death (Group A-0, Group A-30). Control mice underwent no compression of the neck and were killed by(More)
The expression of oxygen regulated protein 150-kDa (ORP-150) was strongly induced in human brain under the hypoxic conditions. We examined the expression of ORP-150 in the brain samples, and discussed its significance in forensic practice. The cerebral cortexes of 31 cases (asphyxia: 9 cases, hypothermia: 4, exsanguinations: 5, CO intoxication (CO): 6,(More)
We investigated the dynamics of the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the human brain after death caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). HO-1 was found to stain neurons and microglia/macrophages in cases with TBI, whereas no positive staining except for a few round cells in the arachnoidal space was observed in control cases. In a case with 7h(More)
Several nuclei in brain stem are well known to play an important role in supporting human life. However, the connection between neural changes of brain stem and the cause of death is not yet fully understood. Previously, in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) it has been suggested that impaired cardioventilatory control might contribute to cause of death.(More)
Activated macrophages at wound sites release many cytokines which positively affect skin wound healing. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling cytokine secretion from macrophages have not been elucidated. In the present study, we performed an RT-PCR analysis and found that 19 small GTPase Rab isoforms were expressed at skin wound sites, with six of(More)