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Normal maps play an important role in realistic 3D image rendering to express pseudo roughness of the surface. In normal map compression, z components are often eliminated and calculated from x and y components based on the unity condition to achieve high compression rate. However, there is no theoretical background of the validity of eliminating z(More)
Weighted prediction (WP) is a very efficient tool to encode video scenes that contain brightness variation caused by fade. Scalable Video Coding (SVC) extension of H.264/AVC can apply the WP tool of H.264/AVC to each spatial layer. However, because the weighted parameter sets in the WP of SVC are assigned to every slice, coding efficiency is degraded if the(More)
Chloroform extraction of trace metals (Ni, Cu, Mo, Mn, Cd and Pb) in estuarine sea-water was studied at pH 8 and pH 3, on the basis that the metals would be associated with dissolved organic matter (DOM), which has recently been characterized by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Ni, Cu, Mo and Mn were extracted more at pH 8 than at pH 3. Cd and Pb were(More)
It is really important to use the proper coding mode in the H.264 encoder, since it offers many more modes than the conventional methods such as MPEG-2. Typical H.264 encoders like JM and JSVM use squared error as the criterion of distortion for mode decision. However, squared error does not always provide a correct measure of the distortion from the(More)