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We show here that amyloid beta peptide1-42 (Abeta1-42) may play a key role in the pathogenesis of the cholinergic dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in addition to its putative role in amyloid plaque formation. Abeta1-42 freshly solubilized in water (non-aged Abeta1-42), which was not neurotoxic without preaggregation, suppressed acetylcholine(More)
Tau protein kinase I (TPKI) isolated from bovine brain has been determined to phosphorylate tau at four distinct sites by detecting modified Ser and Thr residues with protein sequencer. Ser199, Thr231, Ser396 and Ser413 were all found to have been phosphorylated by TPKI (numbering of amino acids was done in relation to the longest human tau [Neuron, 3(More)
We previously reported that tau protein kinase I (TPKI) induced normal tau protein into a state of paired helical filaments (PHF); this is further confirmed here by immunoblot analysis using several antibodies. We also present the amino acid sequence of TPKI, which is identical to glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3 beta). Moreover, we found that TPKI(More)
According to the amyloid hypothesis for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, beta-amyloid peptide (betaA) directly affects neurons, leading to neurodegeneration and tau phosphorylation. In rat hippocampal culture, betaA exposure activates tau protein kinase I/glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (TPKI/GSK-3beta), which phosphorylates tau protein into Alzheimer(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal cell death and two kinds of deposits, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile plaques. The main component of NFT is paired helical filaments (PHF), which mainly consist of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Tau protein kinases I and II were found as candidate enzymes responsible for hyperphosphorylation(More)
Exposure of rat hippocampal neurons to the peptide amyloid beta (A beta) (25-35) as well as A beta (1-40) peptides enhances phosphorylation of tau to a paired helical filament (PHF)-state through activation of tau protein kinase I (TPK I)/glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta) [Busciglio, J., Lorenzo, A., Yeh, J. and Yankner, B.A., Neuron, 14 (1995)(More)
We surveyed a total of 570 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from a variety of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 236), non-AD-demented and nondemented diseases (n = 239), and normal controls (n = 95) to quantitate levels of tau protein phosphorylated at serine 199 (CSF/phospho-tau199) by a recently established sandwich ELISA. The(More)
Developmental expression and cellular localization of a novel brain-specific 25-kDa protein (p25), a substrate of tau protein kinase II, were investigated in the rat brain using polyclonal antibodies raised against peptides synthesized based on the p25 amino acid sequence. By western immunoblotting, p25 was found to be expressed only slightly in the(More)
To study the phosphorylation state of tau in vivo, we have prepared antisera by immunizing rabbits with synthetic phosphopeptides containing phosphoamino acids at specific sites that are potential targets for tau protein kinase II. Immunoblot experiments using these antisera demonstrated that tau in microtubule-associated proteins is phosphorylated at(More)
The majority of cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer disease are caused by mutations in the recently identified presenilin 1 (PS1) gene, located on chromosome 14. PS1, a 467 amino acid protein, is predicted to be an integral membrane protein containing seven putative transmembrane domains and a large hydrophilic loop between the sixth and seventh(More)