Kazushi Nishio

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INTRODUCTION Kyphoscoliosis, which is a deformity of the spine caused by aging and osteoporosis, results in various surgical difficulties for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) due to low-lying costal arches, such as a small abdominal working space, disturbance of the surgical view and decreased controllability of the surgical instrument. PRESENTATION OF(More)
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