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The mechanisms through which synaptic vesicle membranes are reinternalized after exocytosis remain a matter of debate. Because several vesicular transport steps require GTP hydrolysis, GTP-gamma S may help identify intermediates in synaptic vesicle recycling. In GTP-gamma S-treated nerve terminals, we observed tubular invaginations of the plasmalemma that(More)
The initial step in the de novo biosynthesis of cytokinin in higher plants is the formation of isopentenyladenosine 5'-monophosphate (iPMP) from AMP and dimethylallylpyrophosphate (DMAPP), which is catalyzed by adenylate isopentenyltransferase (IPT). Although cytokinin is an essential hormone for growth and development, the nature of the enzyme for its(More)
During endocytosis, clathrin and the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2, assisted by a variety of accessory factors, help to generate an invaginated bud at the cell membrane. One of these factors is Eps15, a clathrin-coat-associated protein that binds the alpha-adaptin subunit of AP-2. Here we investigate the function of Eps15 by characterizing an important(More)
The proline-rich COOH-terminal region of dynamin binds various Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing proteins, but the physiological role of these interactions is unknown. In living nerve terminals, the function of the interaction with SH3 domains was examined. Amphiphysin contains an SH3 domain and is a major dynamin binding partner at the synapse.(More)
Common histidine-to-aspartate (His-->Asp) phosphorelay is a paradigm of signal transduction in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for the propagation of certain environmental stimuli, in which histidine (His)-kinases play central roles as sensors for environmental signals. For the higher plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, it was recently suggested that the(More)
Strong evidence implicates clathrin-coated vesicles and endosome-like vacuoles in the reformation of synaptic vesicles after exocytosis, and it is generally assumed that these vacuoles represent a traffic station downstream from clathrin-coated vesicles. To gain insight into the mechanisms of synaptic vesicle budding from endosome-like intermediates, lysed(More)
In mature neurons synaptic vesicles (SVs) undergo cycles of exo-endocytosis at synapses. It is currently unknown whether SV exocytosis and recycling occurs also in developing axons prior to synapse formation. To address this question, we have developed an immunocytochemical assay to reveal SV exo-endocytosis in hippocampal neurons developing in culture. In(More)
We have described the spatial and temporal accumulation pattern of various cytokinin species in roots, xylem sap and leaves during the resupply of nitrogen in maize. Upon addition of nitrate to nitrogen-depleted maize plants, isopentenyladenosine-5'-monophosphate (iPMP) started to accumulate in roots within 1 h preceding accumulation of trans-zeatin(More)
The small GTP-binding protein Rab3A is a Rab family member that is abundant in brain synaptic vesicles. Here we show that mice in which the rab3A gene has been mutated by homologous recombination do not express Rab3A but are viable and fertile. Electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells indicate that most of their synaptic parameters(More)
GABA, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain, is also present at high concentration in pancreatic islets. Current evidence suggests that within islets GABA is secreted from beta-cells and regulates the function of mantle cells (alpha- and delta-cells). In the nervous system GABA is stored in, and secreted from, synaptic vesicles. The mechanism of(More)