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Sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, hypervariable regions I and II, from 100 unrelated Japanese were determined by PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Sequences of 404 nucleotides for hypervariable region I and 379 nucleotides for region II were obtained. Variable sites (85 and 45) were revealed in region I and(More)
We investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), an endocrine disrupter on learning behavior and synaptic functions. Specifically, we determined the activity of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and related kinases that play an essential role in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus in mice that(More)
We studied the effect of morphine on the current induced by glycine in acutely dissociated nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) neurones of guinea pigs, by use of the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Morphine inhibited 30 microM glycine-induced current (Igly), without affecting the current caused by 30 microM GABA. The effect of morphine was(More)
In 27 pentobarbitalized cats, the influence of electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex upon the spasmodic expiratory response (SER) was studied and compared with cortical influences on coughing induced by stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve (sup. laryngeal N.). This cortical influence was evoked by electrical stimulation of the cortical(More)
The pathways descending from the amygdala to neural structures in the lower brain stem responsible for production of spasmodic expiratory response like cough (SER), which occurred upon electrical stimulation of the cortical nucleus of amygdala (Aco), were investigated using microinjection and ablation techniques in the cat. 1) Following transection of the(More)
Narcotic antitussives such as codeine reveal the antitussive effect primarily via the mu-opioid receptor in the central nervous system (CNS). The kappa-opioid receptor also seems to contribute partly to the production of the antitussive effect of the drugs. There is controversy as to whether delta-receptors are involved in promoting an antitussive effect.(More)
Excessive production of airway mucus is a characteristic feature of many chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Although current pharmacological approaches to excessive mucus production are limited, glucocorticoids appear to be the most effective among a few useful drugs. The exact evidence for the effectiveness of glucocorticoids on mucus production has not(More)
The activities of choline kinase (CK) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were examined in vitro in superior cervical sympathetic ganglia (SCG) excised from rats following aerobic incubation for 1 h in a medium containing various choline concentrations, with and without application of a high KCl level (70 mM). Ganglionic CK activity was strongly inhibited(More)