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The mushroom body (MB) is an important centre for higher order sensory integration and learning in insects. To analyse the development and organisation of the MB neuropile in Drosophila, we performed cell lineage analysis in the adult brain with a new technique that combines the Flippase (flp)/FRT system and the GAL4/UAS system. We showed that the four(More)
Here we used mice lacking tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and its associated receptors to study a model of demyelination and remyelination in which these events could be carefully controlled using a toxin, cuprizone. Unexpectedly, the lack of TNF alpha led to a significant delay in remyelination as assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry for(More)
Macroautophagy is a bulk degradation process induced by starvation in eukaryotic cells. In yeast, 15 Apg proteins coordinate the formation of autophagosomes. Several key reactions performed by these proteins have been described, but a comprehensive understanding of the overall network is still lacking. Based on Apg protein localization, we have identified a(More)
To study microglial/macrophage infiltration, a cuprizone-induced model for demyelination in C57BL/6 mice was established. Cuprizone is known to cause demyelination in Swiss mice, however, cuprizone-induced demyelination in C57BL/6 mice has not been previously described. Induction of demyelination in C57BL/6 mice enables examination of the function of(More)
This review deals with environmental origin, occurrence, episodes, and impact on human health of arsenic. Arsenic, a metalloid occurs naturally, being the 20th most abundant element in the earth's crust, and is a component of more than 245 minerals. These are mostly ores containing sulfide, along with copper, nickel, lead, cobalt, or other metals. Arsenic(More)
Calpain, calcium-activated neutral protease, stands as a unique receptor for calcium signals in biological systems; its activation leads to irreversible proteolytic processing of substrate proteins, modifying cellular situations in a manner distinct from that of reversible processes including the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions. Because the(More)
Although the importance of the Drosophila mushroom body in olfactory learning and memory has been stressed, virtually nothing is known about the brain regions to which it is connected. Using Golgi and GAL4-UAS techniques, we performed the first systematic attempt to reveal the anatomy of its extrinsic neurons. A novel presynaptic reporter construct,(More)
A cDNA clone for a cysteine proteinase inhibitor of rice (oryzacystatin) was isolated from a lambda gt10 cDNA library of rice immature seeds by screening with synthesized oligonucleotide probes based on partial amino acid sequences of oryzacystatin. A nearly full-length cDNA clone was obtained which encoded 102-amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence(More)
Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases are clinically similar neurodegenerative disorders. These two sphingolipidoses are characterized by a heritable absence of beta-hexosaminidase A resulting in defective GM2 ganglioside degradation. Through disruption of the Hexa and Hexb genes in embryonic stem cells, we have established mouse models corresponding to each(More)
CD9 is an integral membrane protein associated with integrins and other membrane proteins. Mice lacking CD9 were produced by homologous recombination. Both male and female CD9-/- mice were born healthy and grew normally. However, the litter size from CD9-/- females was less than 2% of that of the wild type. In vitro fertilization experiments indicated that(More)