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Dyneins are microtubule-based AAA(+) motor complexes that power ciliary beating, cell division, cell migration and intracellular transport. Here we report the most complete structure obtained so far, to our knowledge, of the 380-kDa motor domain of Dictyostelium discoideum cytoplasmic dynein at 2.8 Å resolution; the data are reliable enough to discuss the(More)
Dynein ATPases are the largest known cytoskeletal motors and perform critical functions in cells: carrying cargo along microtubules in the cytoplasm and powering flagellar beating. Dyneins are members of the AAA+ superfamily of ring-shaped enzymes, but how they harness this architecture to produce movement is poorly understood. Here, we have used cryo-EM to(More)
Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-based motor protein that is responsible for most intracellular retrograde transports along microtubule filaments. The motor domain of dynein contains six tandemly linked AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) modules, with the first four containing predicted nucleotide-binding/hydrolysis sites (P1-P4).(More)
The motor protein dynein is predicted to move the tail domain, a slender rod-like structure, relative to the catalytic head domain to carry out its power stroke. Here, we investigated ATP hydrolysis cycle-dependent conformational dynamics of dynein using fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of the dynein motor domain labeled with two fluorescent(More)
In muscle, the myosin head ('crossbridge') performs the 'working stroke', in which ATP is hydrolysed to generate the sliding of actin and myosin filaments. The myosin head consists of a globular motor domain and a long lever-arm domain. The 'lever-arm hypothesis' predicts that during the working stroke, the lever-arm domain tilts against the motor domain,(More)
The gapA gene encoding a novel RasGTPase-activating protein (RasGAP)-related protein was found to be disrupted in a cytokinesis mutant of Dictyostelium that grows as giant and multinucleate cells in a dish culture. The predicted sequence of the GAPA protein showed considerable homology to those of Gap1/Sar1 from fission yeast and the COOH-terminal half of(More)
Both ATP hydrolysis by myosin and the accompanying cyclic association-dissociation of actin and myosin are essential for muscle contraction. It is important for understanding the molecular mechanism of contraction to know the three-dimensional locations of the two major functional sites of myosin: the ATPase site and the actin-binding site. We have(More)
A cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-based motor protein involved in diverse cellular functions, such as organelle transport and chromosome segregation. The dynein has two ring-shaped heads that contain six repeats of the AAA domain responsible for ATP hydrolysis. It has been proposed that the ATPase-dependent swing of a stalk and a stem emerging from each(More)
Fuelled by ATP hydrolysis, dyneins generate force and movement on microtubules in a wealth of biological processes, including ciliary beating, cell division and intracellular transport. The large mass and complexity of dynein motors have made elucidating their mechanisms a sizable task. Yet, through a combination of approaches, including X-ray(More)
Dyneins are large microtubule-based motors that power a wide variety of cellular processes. Here we report a 4.5-Å X-ray crystallographic analysis of the entire functional motor domain of cytoplasmic dynein with ADP from Dictyostelium discoideum, which has revealed the detailed architecture of the functional units required for motor activity, including the(More)