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We examined the hypothesis (Ono & Wade, 1985) that occlusion of far stimuli by a near one on the same visual line can operate as a depth cue in stereograms containing different numbers of targets in the two eyes. By controlling eye positions, we created conditions in which the visual system could interpret the retinal images as originating from stimuli on(More)
The aim of the present study was to clarify the involvement of protein kinase Cγ (PKCγ) in the facial neuropathic pain following infraorbital nerve injury. We analyzed the change in PKCγ expression in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and upper cervical spinal cord (C1/C2) following chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate spatial organization of hyperactive microglial cells in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and upper cervical spinal cord (C1), and to clarify the involvement in mechanisms underlying orofacial secondary hyperalgesia following infraorbital nerve injury. We found that the head-withdrawal threshold to non-noxious(More)
In the orofacial region, limited information is available concerning pathological tongue pain, such as inflammatory pain or neuropathic pain occurring in the tongue. Here, we tried for the first time to establish a novel animal model of inflammatory tongue pain in rats and to investigate the roles of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-extracellular(More)
Fractalkine (FKN) signaling is involved in mechanical allodynia in the facial skin following trapezius muscle inflammation. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection into the trapezius muscle produced mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral facial skin that was not associated with facial skin inflammation and resulted in FKN but not FKN receptor (CX3CR1)(More)
A horizontally moving target was followed by rotation of the eyes alone or by a lateral movement of the head. These movements resulted in the retinal displacement of a vertically moving target from its perceived path, the amplitude of which was determined by the phase and amplitude of the object motion and of the eye or head movements. In two experiments,(More)
The hyperexcitability of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons following inflammation or C-fiber stimulation is known to be involved in a variety of changes in gene expression in TG neurons, resulting in pain abnormalities in orofacial regions. We analyzed nocifensive behavior following complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or capsaicin injection into the maxillary(More)
To evaluate the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms, this study assessed nocifensive behavior evoked by mechanical or thermal stimulation of the whisker pad skin, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) neurons, and Vc(More)
The relations between psychophysical and oculo-motor responses to retinal disparity were examined in two experiments. Experiment I examined the subject's discriminability of the depth produced by 2 degrees crossed, 2 degrees uncrossed, and zero disparities with the durations of 100 and 1000 ms. As a result, six stereonormal, one crossed stereoanomalous, and(More)
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