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A persistent change in neuronal activity after brief stimuli is a common feature of many neuronal microcircuits. This persistent activity can be sustained by ongoing reverberant network activity or by the intrinsic biophysical properties of individual cells. Here we demonstrate that rat and guinea pig cerebellar Purkinje cells in vivo show bistability of(More)
Actomyosin, a complex of actin filaments and myosin motor proteins, is responsible for force generation during muscle contraction. To resolve the individual mechanical events of force generation by actomyosin, we have developed a new instrument with which we can capture and directly manipulate individual myosin subfragment-1 molecules using a scanning(More)
Synaptic inputs on dendrites are nonlinearly converted to action potential outputs, yet the spatiotemporal patterns of dendritic activation remain to be elucidated at single-synapse resolution. In rodents, we optically imaged synaptic activities from hundreds of dendritic spines in hippocampal and neocortical pyramidal neurons ex vivo and in vivo. Adjacent(More)
Recent clinical studies in China showed that As2O3 is an effective and relatively safe drug in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). We found previously that As2O3 can trigger apoptosis of APL cell line NB4 cells, which is associated with downregulation of bcl-2 gene expression and modulation of PML-RAR alpha chimeric protein. To further(More)
A novel hypotensive peptide was discovered in human pheochromocytoma by monitoring the elevating activity of platelet cAMP. Since this peptide is abundant in normal adrenal medulla as well as in pheochromocytoma tissue arising from adrenal medulla, it was designated "adrenomedullin". The peptide, consisting of 52 amino acids, has one intramolecular(More)
PURPOSE To reduce uncertainty due to setup error and organ motion during radiotherapy of tumors in or near the lung, by means of real-time tumor tracking and gating of a linear accelerator. METHODS AND MATERIALS The real-time tumor-tracking system consists of four sets of diagnostic X-ray television systems (two of which offer an unobstructed view of the(More)
Fluorescent Ca(2+) reporters are widely used as readouts of neuronal activities. Here we designed R-CaMP2, a high-affinity red genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) with a Hill coefficient near 1. Use of the calmodulin-binding sequence of CaMKK-α and CaMKK-β in lieu of an M13 sequence resulted in threefold faster rise and decay times of Ca(2+)(More)
Functional neural circuits are formed by eliminating early-formed redundant synapses and strengthening necessary connections during development. In newborn mouse cerebellum, each Purkinje cell (PC) is innervated by multiple climbing fibers (CFs) with similar strengths. Subsequently, a single CF is selectively strengthened by postnatal day 7 (P7). We find(More)
Visceral smooth muscle cells (VSMC) play an essential role, through changes in their contraction-relaxation cycle, in the maintenance of homeostasis in biological systems. The features of these cells differ markedly by tissue and by species; moreover, there are often regional differences within a given tissue. The biophysical features used to investigate(More)