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Induced overexpression of AID in CH12F3-2 B lymphoma cells augmented class switching from IgM to IgA without cytokine stimulation. AID deficiency caused a complete defect in class switching and showed a hyper-IgM phenotype with enlarged germinal centers containing strongly activated B cells before or after immunization. AID-/- spleen cells stimulated in(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a putative RNA-editing enzyme, is indispensable for somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination, and gene conversion of immunoglobulin genes, which indicates a common molecular mechanism for these phenomena. Here we show that ectopic expression of AID alone can induce hypermutation in an artificial(More)
The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) gene, specifically expressed in germinal center B cells in mice, is a member of the cytidine deaminase family. We herein report mutations in the human counterpart of AID in patients with the autosomal recessive form of hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2). Three major abnormalities characterize AID deficiency: (1) the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have gain-of-function mutations of c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT) gene, but some GISTs do not. We investigated the cause of GISTs without KIT mutations. Because GISTs apparently expressed platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) alpha, we examined whether GISTs without KIT mutations(More)
Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Here we show that infection of gastric epithelial cells with 'cag' pathogenicity island (cagPAI)-positive H. pylori induced aberrant expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a member of the cytidine-deaminase family that acts as a DNA-(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for class-switch recombination (CSR), somatic hypermutation, and gene conversion of Ig genes. Although AID has sequence similarity to an RNA-editing enzyme Apobec-1, how AID functions in CSR and somatic hypermutation is unknown. Because involvement of RNA-editing but not DNA-editing in CSR requires de(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) was originally identified as an inducer of somatic hypermutations in the immunoglobulin gene. We recently revealed that ectopic AID expression serves as a link between the cellular editing machinery and high mutation frequencies, leading to human cancer development. In the current study, we(More)
BACKGROUND After endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of early gastric cancer (EGC), patients are at high risk for synchronous or metachronous multiple gastric cancers. OBJECTIVE To elucidate the time at which multiple cancers develop and to determine whether scheduled endoscopic surveillance might control their development. DESIGN A multicentre(More)
Class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) have been considered to be mediated by different molecular mechanisms because both target DNAs and DNA modification products are quite distinct. However, involvement of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in both CSR and SHM has revealed that the two genetic alteration mechanisms are(More)
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is generated in the gut by both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent processes. The sites and the mechanisms for T cell-independent IgA synthesis remain elusive. Here we show that isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) were sites where induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and IgA class switching of B cells took(More)