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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
The human genome is by far the largest genome to be sequenced, and its size and complexity present many challenges for sequence assembly. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium constructed a map of the whole genome to enable the selection of clones for sequencing and for the accurate assembly of the genome sequence. Here we report the(More)
The hyperosmolarity-induced changes of the apical (Vap) and basal (Vba) membrane potentials of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were studied in an in-vitro RPE-choroid preparation of the frog. Both Vap and Vba were simultaneously hyperpolarized by hyperosmolarity at either the apical or basal side of the RPE. Hyperosmolarity at the apical side(More)
Diabetic retinopathy has long been considered to be a retinal manifestation of systemic diabetic angiopathy. Indeed, it is therapeutically true. However, the prolongation of OP peak latency in diabetic eyes without any angiographic evidence of angiopathy leads us to presume that certain neuronal disorders occur early in diabetic eyes. Even though we cannot(More)
The depth profiles of the b- and d-waves of the electroretinogram were studied in the isolated frog retina placed with its receptor side up. The electrode was introduced into the retina from the receptor side and the reference electrode was placed on the vitreal side. The b-wave was maximum in amplitude in the receptor layer, and decreased as the electrode(More)
We carried out a postmortem examination on two Japanese patients, 64- and 80-year-old men whose survival was prolonged with an artificial respirator. They had no family history of neuropsychiatric disorders and were suspected, clinically, as having a motor neuron disease that differed from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As well as upper and lower(More)
Viral vector-mediated gene transfer has become increasingly valuable for primate brain research, in particular for application of genetic methods (e.g. optogenetics) to study neuronal circuit functions. Neuronal cell tropisms and infection patterns are viable options for obtaining viral vector-mediated transgene delivery that is selective for particular(More)
New clinical methods are proposed to assess (1) neuronal activities of the retinal inner layers including amacrine cells by means of the oscillatory potential, (2) photopic function through the rapid decay in the off-response and (3) activities of the retinal pigment epithelium through susceptibility of the standing potential of the eye to osmotic stress(More)
In three eyes with a retained intraocular metallic foreign body, the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) integrity were evaluated by means of ERG (a-wave, b-wave, oscillatory potentials) and non-photic EOG responses from the RPE (hyperosmolarity response, Diamox response, bicarbonate response). All three cases were judged in an early stage of(More)
Trastuzumab is the only HER2/neu-directed therapy to have received Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. The efficacy of trastuzumab depends on the HER2/neu status of the tumour and the patient's prior treatment, but even when patients are selected on the basis of HER2/neu gene amplification, the(More)