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This study demonstrates that the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) are sources of cholinergic projections to the cat pontine reticular formation gigantocellular tegmental field (PFTG). Neurons of the LDT and PPT were double-labeled utilizing choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry combined with(More)
By a Percoll density-gradient centrifugation of rat hippocampal homogenate, we found a novel subcellular fraction (specific gravity approximately 1.046 g/ml), besides synaptosomes (approximately 1.060 g/ml), which showed a high activity of Na(+)-dependent glutamate uptake. The initial rate of the glutamate uptake in this fraction was as high as twice that(More)
It has not been discussed whether transient forebrain ischemia of 5-min duration, which is a model frequently used to evaluate pharmacological protection against ischemic injury, is an optimal model in the CA1 field of this animal whose brain temperature is maintained at normothermic levels. The temperature of the brain during an ischemic insult strongly(More)
In vivo brain microdialysis experiments were performed in the gerbil to evaluate the origin of accumulation of extracellular glutamate under transient ischemia. Microdialysis probes were positioned in the CA1 field of the hippocampus in which proliferation of astrocytes, death of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and damage of presynaptic terminals had been induced by(More)
We examined the effect of transient forebrain ischemia of 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-min duration on the development of delayed neuronal death in field CA1 of the hippocampus in the gerbil whose brain temperature was maintained at 37 degrees C. Transient ischemia of 3- and 4-min duration caused almost the same maximal damage in field CA1 as observed in the gerbils(More)
A quantitative analysis of glutamate in brain dialysate was made by using an enzymatic cycling technique. This method made it possible to measure the concentration of glutamate in dialysate collected at 30-s intervals. Dialysates were collected from Mongolian gerbil hippocampus before, during, and after two 90-s ischemic insults at an interval of 5 min. An(More)
In order to elucidate the mechanism of release of excitatory amino acid (EAA) induced by hypoxia-hypoglycemia (in vitro ischemia) from cultured hippocampal astrocytes, we compared the EAA release by in vitro ischemia with those by other treatments. The EAA release induced by in vitro ischemia treatment was rapid and reversible. The amount of released(More)
The effects of steroid hormones on glutamate neurotoxicity were examined in cultured spinal cord neurons. The extent of neuronal damage, produced by glutamate exposure for 15 min, was estimated based on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase released from degenerated neurons to the media during 24 h of post-exposure incubation. This damage was dependent on(More)
When the brain temperature was lowered by 2 degrees C from normothermic temperature, a protective effect on postischemic neuronal death was exhibited and levels of extracellular glutamate were attenuated to about half of those at normothermic brain temperature in the gerbil hippocampus. Hypothermia has been reported to confer a protective effect on(More)
Microglial activation has been considered as a result of neuronal damage, however, recently it becomes to recognize as a possible cause of the damage in various neurodegenerative diseases. To elucidate the mechanism of the microglial activation, we examined the time course of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced change in morphology and the release of cytokines(More)