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Developmental processes of organisms are programmed to proceed in a finely regulated manner and finish within a certain period of time depending on the ambient environmental conditions. Therefore, variation in the developmental period under controlled genetic and environmental conditions indicates innate instability of the developmental process. In this(More)
Developmental stability is the tendency of morphological traits to resist the effects of developmental noise, and is commonly evaluated by examining fluctuating asymmetry (FA)-random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry. Molecular mechanisms that control FA have been a long-standing topic of debate in the field of evolutionary biology and quantitative(More)
Wood-rotting fungi are major organisms exploiting coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests. Here, guild structure of wood-rotting fungi was investigated in cool temperate (Chichibu) and warm temperate (Chiba) forests in central Japan, based on their occurrence on CWD of different volumes and decay stages. Analysis with the program partitioning around medoids(More)
1. Laboratory experiments using homogeneous resources were conducted to examine intra- and interspecific spatial egg distribution of D. simulans, D. auraria and D. immigrans in three different resource-patch distribution patterns: patchy, even and clustered. 2. Individuals of each species were introduced separately or simultaneously into the cage, into(More)
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as random deviation from perfect symmetry, has been used to assay the inability of individuals to buffer their developmental processes from environmental perturbations (i.e., developmental instability). In this study, we aimed to characterize the natural genetic variation in FA of wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster,(More)
Progression of development has to be insulated from the damaging impacts of environmental and genetic perturbations to produce highly predictable phenotypes. Molecular chaperones, such as the heat shock proteins (HSPs), are known to buffer various environmental stresses, and are deeply involved in protein homeostasis. These characteristics of HSPs imply(More)
Cryptic genetic variation (CGV) or a standing genetic variation that is not ordinarily expressed as a phenotype is released when the robustness of organisms is impaired under environmental or genetic perturbations. Evolutionary capacitors modulate the amount of genetic variation exposed to natural selection and hidden cryptically; they have a fundamental(More)
Environmental canalization is defined as a reduction in the effect of external environmental perturbations on a phenotype, while phenotypic plasticity is defined as the production of different phenotypes in alternative environments. These terms describe different aspects of the same phenomenon, that is, the sensitivity of the phenotype to the environment.(More)
Developmental stability, the ability of organisms to buffer their developmental processes against developmental noise is often evaluated with fluctuating asymmetry (FA). Natural genetic variation in FA has been investigated using Drosophila wings as a model system and the recent estimation of the heritability of wing shape FA was as large as 20 %. Because(More)
Cryptic genetic variation (CGV) is defined as the genetic variation that has little effect on phenotypic variation under a normal condition, but contributes to heritable variation under environmental or genetic perturbations. Genetic buffering systems that suppress the expression of CGV and store it in a population are called genetic capacitors, and the(More)