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In the basal ganglia, convergent input and dopaminergic modulation of the direct striatonigral and the indirect striatopallidal pathways are critical in rewarding and aversive learning and drug addiction. To explore how the basal ganglia information is processed and integrated through these two pathways, we developed a reversible neurotransmission blocking(More)
Exquisitely precise synapse formation is crucial for the mammalian CNS to function correctly. Retinal photoreceptors transfer information to bipolar and horizontal cells at a specialized synapse, the ribbon synapse. We identified pikachurin, an extracellular matrix-like retinal protein, and observed that it localized to the synaptic cleft in the(More)
Dopamine (DA) transmission from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is critical for controlling both rewarding and aversive behaviors. The transient silencing of DA neurons is one of the responses to aversive stimuli, but its consequences and neural mechanisms regarding aversive responses and learning have largely remained elusive. Here, we report that(More)
Classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex is elicited by paired presentation of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus and represents a basic form of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Purkinje cells and the deep nuclei receive convergent information of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus through the mossy fiber and climbing(More)
The cerebellum plays an essential role in motor control, and its dysfunction may delay the onset of action and disrupt smooth and efficient movement. A Purkinje neuron (PN), the sole output cell type in the cerebellar cortex, receives two distinct types of excitatory synaptic inputs, numerous weak inputs from granule neurons (GNs) and occasional strong(More)
An essential step in intricate visual processing is the segregation of visual signals into ON and OFF pathways by retinal bipolar cells (BCs). Glutamate released from photoreceptors modulates the photoresponse of ON BCs via metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) and G protein (Go) that regulates a cation channel. However, the cation channel has not yet(More)
Both the mammalian and avian auditory systems localize sound sources by computing the interaural time difference (ITD) with submillisecond accuracy. The neural circuits for this computation in birds consist of axonal delay lines and coincidence detector neurons. Here, we report the first in vivo intracellular recordings from coincidence detectors in the(More)
To elucidate cortical correlates of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) modulation, we observed cortical activation during fixation suppression and habituation of caloric vestibular nystagmus in 12 normal subjects, using PET. Significant positive correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and slow phase eye velocity of caloric nystagmus was observed(More)
Neurons of the avian nucleus laminaris (NL) compute the interaural time difference (ITD) by detecting coincident arrivals of binaural signals with submillisecond accuracy. The cellular mechanisms for this temporal precision have long been studied theoretically and experimentally. The myelinated axon initial segment in the owl's NL neuron and small somatic(More)
Interaural time difference (ITD), or the difference in timing of a sound wave arriving at the two ears, is a fundamental cue for sound localization. A wide variety of animals have specialized neural circuits dedicated to the computation of ITDs. In the avian auditory brainstem, ITDs are encoded as the spike rates in the coincidence detector neurons of the(More)