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1. Synaptic inputs to nucleus laminaris (NL) neurones were studied in a brainstem slice preparation of chick embryos (E15-20) using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. NL neurones are third order auditory neurones and are proposed to behave as coincidence detectors concerned with interaural timing discrimination. 2. Under voltage clamp conditions,(More)
The auditory system uses delay lines and coincidence detection to measure the interaural time difference (ITD). Both axons and the cochlea could provide such delays. The stereausis theory assumes that differences in wave propagation time along the basilar membrane can provide the necessary delays, if the coincidence detectors receive input from fibers(More)
In the basal ganglia, convergent input and dopaminergic modulation of the direct striatonigral and the indirect striatopallidal pathways are critical in rewarding and aversive learning and drug addiction. To explore how the basal ganglia information is processed and integrated through these two pathways, we developed a reversible neurotransmission blocking(More)
Dynamic properties of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and optokinetic response (OKR) were studied in mice. The VOR was examined in the dark (VORD), in the light (VORL) and in the condition in which most of the visual field moves synchronously with the head motion (VORF). A mouse and/or a surrounding screen with vertical stripes was rotated(More)
The delta 2 subunit of ionotropic glutamate receptors is expressed only in the cerebellar Purkinje cell. In mutant mice deficient in the delta 2 protein, cerebellar long-term depression and motor coordination are impaired. We examined behavioural plasticity in these mutant mice after unilateral vestibular destruction. After intratympanic injection of sodium(More)
Exquisitely precise synapse formation is crucial for the mammalian CNS to function correctly. Retinal photoreceptors transfer information to bipolar and horizontal cells at a specialized synapse, the ribbon synapse. We identified pikachurin, an extracellular matrix-like retinal protein, and observed that it localized to the synaptic cleft in the(More)
Dopamine (DA) transmission from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is critical for controlling both rewarding and aversive behaviors. The transient silencing of DA neurons is one of the responses to aversive stimuli, but its consequences and neural mechanisms regarding aversive responses and learning have largely remained elusive. Here, we report that(More)
Neurons of the avian nucleus laminaris (NL) compute the interaural time difference (ITD) by detecting coincident arrivals of binaural signals with submillisecond accuracy. The cellular mechanisms for this temporal precision have long been studied theoretically and experimentally. The myelinated axon initial segment in the owl's NL neuron and small somatic(More)
Classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex is elicited by paired presentation of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus and represents a basic form of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Purkinje cells and the deep nuclei receive convergent information of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus through the mossy fiber and climbing(More)
Both the mammalian and avian auditory systems localize sound sources by computing the interaural time difference (ITD) with submillisecond accuracy. The neural circuits for this computation in birds consist of axonal delay lines and coincidence detector neurons. Here, we report the first in vivo intracellular recordings from coincidence detectors in the(More)