Kazuo Funabiki

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In the basal ganglia, convergent input and dopaminergic modulation of the direct striatonigral and the indirect striatopallidal pathways are critical in rewarding and aversive learning and drug addiction. To explore how the basal ganglia information is processed and integrated through these two pathways, we developed a reversible neurotransmission blocking(More)
1. Synaptic inputs to nucleus laminaris (NL) neurones were studied in a brainstem slice preparation of chick embryos (E15-20) using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. NL neurones are third order auditory neurones and are proposed to behave as coincidence detectors concerned with interaural timing discrimination. 2. Under voltage clamp conditions,(More)
An essential step in intricate visual processing is the segregation of visual signals into ON and OFF pathways by retinal bipolar cells (BCs). Glutamate released from photoreceptors modulates the photoresponse of ON BCs via metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) and G protein (Go) that regulates a cation channel. However, the cation channel has not yet(More)
The auditory system uses delay lines and coincidence detection to measure the interaural time difference (ITD). Both axons and the cochlea could provide such delays. The stereausis theory assumes that differences in wave propagation time along the basilar membrane can provide the necessary delays, if the coincidence detectors receive input from fibers(More)
Dynamic properties of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and optokinetic response (OKR) were studied in mice. The VOR was examined in the dark (VORD), in the light (VORL) and in the condition in which most of the visual field moves synchronously with the head motion (VORF). A mouse and/or a surrounding screen with vertical stripes was rotated(More)
The delta 2 subunit of ionotropic glutamate receptors is expressed only in the cerebellar Purkinje cell. In mutant mice deficient in the delta 2 protein, cerebellar long-term depression and motor coordination are impaired. We examined behavioural plasticity in these mutant mice after unilateral vestibular destruction. After intratympanic injection of sodium(More)
To elucidate cortical correlates of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) modulation, we observed cortical activation during fixation suppression and habituation of caloric vestibular nystagmus in 12 normal subjects, using PET. Significant positive correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and slow phase eye velocity of caloric nystagmus was observed(More)
Classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex is elicited by paired presentation of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus and represents a basic form of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Purkinje cells and the deep nuclei receive convergent information of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus through the mossy fiber and climbing(More)
Fear is induced by innate and learned mechanisms involving separate pathways. Here, we used an olfactory-mediated innate-fear versus learned-fear paradigm to investigate how these pathways are integrated. Notably, prior presentation of innate-fear stimuli inhibited learned-freezing response, but not vice versa. Whole-brain mapping and pharmacological(More)
Controlling neural activity with high spatio-temporal resolution is desired for studying how neural circuit dynamics control animal behavior. Conventional methods for manipulating neural activity, such as electrical microstimulation or pharmacological blockade, have poor spatial and/or temporal resolution. Algal protein channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) enables(More)