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The auditory system uses delay lines and coincidence detection to measure the interaural time difference (ITD). Both axons and the cochlea could provide such delays. The stereausis theory assumes that differences in wave propagation time along the basilar membrane can provide the necessary delays, if the coincidence detectors receive input from fibers(More)
Both the mammalian and avian auditory systems localize sound sources by computing the interaural time difference (ITD) with submillisecond accuracy. The neural circuits for this computation in birds consist of axonal delay lines and coincidence detector neurons. Here, we report the first in vivo intracellular recordings from coincidence detectors in the(More)
Neurons of the avian nucleus laminaris (NL) compute the interaural time difference (ITD) by detecting coincident arrivals of binaural signals with submillisecond accuracy. The cellular mechanisms for this temporal precision have long been studied theoretically and experimentally. The myelinated axon initial segment in the owl's NL neuron and small somatic(More)
Leak K(+) conductance generated by TASK1/3 channels is crucial for neuronal excitability. However, endogenous modulators activating TASK channels in neurons remained unknown. We previously reported that in the presumed cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF), activation of NO-cGMP-PKG (protein kinase G) pathway enhanced the TASK1-like leak K(+)(More)
Interaural time difference (ITD), or the difference in timing of a sound wave arriving at the two ears, is a fundamental cue for sound localization. A wide variety of animals have specialized neural circuits dedicated to the computation of ITDs. In the avian auditory brainstem, ITDs are encoded as the spike rates in the coincidence detector neurons of the(More)
Song learning takes place in two separate or partially overlapping periods, a sensory phase in which a tutor song is memorized and a sensorimotor phase in which a copy of the model is produced. The stage of song development where song becomes stable and stereotyped is called crystallization. Adult birds usually do not learn new song in many species(More)
Songbirds first memorize a tutor song in youth and develop their own song after the remembered model. As birds sexually mature, their song becomes crystallized and refractory to further tutoring. Here, we show that the song syllables of adult zebra finches gradually drift from their once crystallized forms, when individual birds are kept in auditory(More)
Owls use interaural time differences (ITDs) to locate a sound source. They compute ITD in a specialized neural circuit that consists of axonal delay lines from the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and coincidence detectors in the nucleus laminaris (NL). Recent physiological recordings have shown that tonal stimuli induce oscillatory membrane potentials(More)
20 Owls use interaural time differences (ITDs) to locate a sound source. They compute ITD in a 21 specialized neural circuit that consists of axonal delay lines from the cochlear nucleus 22 magnocellularis (NM) and coincidence detectors in the nucleus laminaris (NL). Recent 23 physiological recordings showed that tonal stimuli induce oscillatory membrane(More)